Governance formale e informale nel Libano di Hezbollah: le nuove sfide del conflitto siriano

Benedetta Panchetti, Marcello Mollica

Abstract


Il Libano, paese mediorientale confinante con Siria e Israele, fonda il proprio sistema politico- costituzionale sul principio del “confessionalismo”, un modello di power-sharing a livello politico e amministrativo che prevede la divisione del potere sulla base di un sistema di quote allocate percentualmente a tutte le confessioni religiose ufficialmente riconosciute dallo stato. Basato su ricerche sul campo e osservazione partecipante, questo articolo guarda al come, dall’inizio della guerra in Siria nel 2011, il sistema consociativo libanese si è confrontato con le conseguenze politico-sociali che da quel conflitto si sono diramate, specie con riferimento alle relazioni tra cristiani e Hezbollah. Innanzitutto, i vecchi drammi della guerra civile libanese, combattuta per quindici anni lungo faglie ideologiche e linee settarie religiose, si sono reincarnati combinandosi con fattori endogeni e esogeni. Secondo, il conflitto siriano ha acuito le divisioni tra i partiti polarizzandoli in due blocchi di forze contrapposte proprio sulle relazioni con il regime siriano di Bashar Assad: quelle alleate (il partito- milizia sciita di Hezbollah e il Movimento Patriottico Libero del Presidente della Repubblica, il maronita Michel Aoun); quelle avverse (il partito sunnita Futuro del Primo Ministro Saad Hariri e i partiti cristiani Kataeb e Forze Libanesi).

Keyword


Libano, Hezbollah, Governance, spill-over Guerra Siriana

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.6092/2240-7715/2019.2.55-84

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