Zibrowius, H. (1989) A propos des Gorgonaires Isididae du Plio-Pléistocene de méditerranée (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti Classe FF.MM.NN. , 67. pp. 159-179.
Isidella elongata is the unique Isididae in the present bathyal fauna of the Mediterranean, Probably, this species typical of muddy bottoms was already present in that sea during the Plio-Pleistocene, but fossils (simple intemodia, base divided into «spreading roots») cannot yet be identified with certainty. On the contrary, it is proved that the deep-water fauna of the Mediterranean P1io-P1eistocene also comprised Isididae other than I. elongata. This assertion is based on the presence, among the fossils from Sicily and Calabria, of: 1) branched internodia; 2) simple internodia too thick to be attributed to I. elongata; 3) axes with nodia encrusted with massive calcareous deposits that maintain internodia in connection; 4) compact bases attached to hard substrates. At least part of these fossil Isididae belong to the genus Keratoisis, but the presence of further genera that are no longer represented in the Mediterranean, cannot be ruled out. Isididae other than I. elongata were still living at great depth in the Mediterranean during the Upper Pleistocene (specimens obtained by dredging and by submersibie; photos taken by submersible on an escarpement). The genus Isis, in the Recent typical of reef environments in the Indo Pacific, was not represented in the Mediterranean Piio-Pleistocene.
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