Messanae Universitas Studiorum

The role of defense mechanisms in the modulation of
anger experience and expression: Gender differences and
influence on self-report measures

Zoccali, Rocco A. and Muscatello, Maria R. A. and Bruno, Antonio and Cedro, Clemente and Campolo, Domenica and Pandolfo, Gianluca and Meduri, Mario (2007) The role of defense mechanisms in the modulation of
anger experience and expression: Gender differences and
influence on self-report measures.
Personality and Individual Differences, 43 (3). pp. 1426-1436. ISSN 0191-8869

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    Abstract

    Based on the background that defense mechanisms might contaminate personality evaluation measures,
    the present study was performed with the aim of verifying the influence of defense mechanisms on a selfevaluation
    instrument for anger.
    A total of 100 healthy subjects (44 males and 56 females) completed the STAXI – State-Trait Anger
    Expression Inventory and the DMI – Defense Mechanisms Inventory.
    Data were analyzed through t test for independent samples, correlation analysis (PearsonÂ’s correlation
    coefficients), and stepwise regression models. The means for anger experience and expression resulted all in
    the normal range and no gender differences were observed; no gender differences were found in the use of
    defense mechanisms. The interference of defense mechanisms on anger self-evaluation was more prominent
    in males. In both sexes, TAO predicts anger experience and expression.
    The ‘‘contamination’’ of self-report data by defense mechanisms can lead to oversimplified, unrealistic
    models of human behavior. The assessment of defense mechanisms associated to self-report instruments
    may conduce to a more realistic evaluation of anger.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Anger Aggression Defense mechanisms Self-reports
    Subjects: M.U.S. - Contributi Scientifici > 06 - Scienze mediche
    Divisions: UNSPECIFIED
    Depositing User: Mr Nunzio Femminò
    Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2009
    Last Modified: 03 Apr 2013 11:53
    URI: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/513

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