Messanae Universitas Studiorum: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited. 2018-05-24T23:27:49ZEPrintshttp://cab.unime.it/images/sitelogo.pnghttp://cab.unime.it/mus/2014-04-09T09:52:23Z2014-04-10T08:02:47Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/5154This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/51542014-04-09T09:52:23ZPreface. Paolo Vittorio GiaquintaMatilde Vicentini MissoniFranco Wanderlingh2012-10-01T10:52:39Z2012-10-01T10:52:39Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/822This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8222012-10-01T10:52:39ZThermodynamic education report of the round table discussionM. Missoni Vincentini2012-10-01T10:52:36Z2012-10-01T10:52:36Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/820This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8202012-10-01T10:52:36ZAlternative conceptions in thermodynamics from elementary school level to universitySalvador Guerrero Jara2012-10-01T10:52:33Z2012-10-01T10:52:33Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/819This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8192012-10-01T10:52:33ZFor a thermodynamics teaching in a secondary school basic chemistry courseAldo BorseseEnrico DaminelliRosaria OrgeraRaffaele Pentimalli2012-10-01T10:52:30Z2012-10-01T10:52:30Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/818This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8182012-10-01T10:52:30ZStudents reasoning in thermodynamicsS. RozierL. Viennot2012-10-01T10:52:27Z2012-10-01T10:52:27Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/817This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8172012-10-01T10:52:27ZTeaching thermodynamics: chemical potential from the beginningSince 1973 a new concept of chemical thermodynamics has been used in the beginner’s course of chemistry at the University of Hamburg, in which the chemical potential is introduced in the first lesson.
The course has the following characteristics:
1) The affinity of a reaction is introduced by using a direct measuring method (like length, time or mass) using neither energy nor entropy. The chemical potential of a substance is defined as the affinity of the decomposition reaction of this substance into the elements in their standard states.
2) The pressure, temperature, concentration dependence of the chemical potential is discussed using only linear functions in the first stage. Logarithmic equations are used in the next stage to describe the mass action of a solute or gaseous substance.
3) Various applications are discussed qualitatively and quantitatively: stability of compounds, phase transitions, calculation of melting and boiling points and their dependence on pressure, vapour pressure curve, solubilities and equilibrium constants including their temperature and pressure dependence .... up to MAXWELL’S distribution law of molecular velocities (further colligative properties, diffusion and migration, chemical kinetics, multiphase systems, elektromotive forces etc, not described here).
4) Entropy is introduced only for the description of the thermochemical phenomena (not described here).
Georg Job2012-10-01T10:52:24Z2012-10-01T10:52:24Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/816This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8162012-10-01T10:52:24ZTeaching thermodynamics: entropy from the beginningF. Hermann2012-10-01T10:52:20Z2012-10-01T10:52:20Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/803This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8032012-10-01T10:52:20ZTeaching energy and entropy before temperature and heat not viceversaGian Paolo BerettaElias P. Gyftopoulos2012-10-01T10:52:16Z2012-10-01T10:52:16Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/802This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8022012-10-01T10:52:16ZThermodynamics VS. mechanics. A new look and a new didacticsAntonino Drago2012-10-01T10:52:12Z2012-10-01T10:52:12Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/801This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8012012-10-01T10:52:12ZDissipation and entropy production: an epistemological attempt to unify mechanics and thermodynamicsIn the usual physical teaching, Mechanics and Thermodynamics seem to belong to different paradigms, notwithstanding their common fundamental role. Key-words for stressing such a contrast are "reversibility" and "irreversibility", "probability" and "chance" or, in a metaphorical sense, "Newtonian" and "Aristotelic".
In my opinion we can recognise here a cause for the conceptual blunders that characterize the "physical" explanation of the everyday phenomena furnished by non-specia1ized people, even when an orthodox physical teaching has been done.
In the present paper I try to expose an unifying point of view, based on the naive concept of "memory function", that promote entropy to a more fundamental role. According to my proposal such a quantity is to be considered also in the mechanical description. The "ideal" reversible mechanics appears as a special limiting case that, moreover, can lead to some inconsistency. The opposite limiting case gives rise to the usual thermodynamics that, although in a different framework, is as well strictly deterministic.
A bridge is furnished by fluctuations. According to the present idea, fluctuation-dissipation theorem appears in a rather natural way, and its role in bridging mechanics and thermodynamics grounds the concept of Temperature.
F. Wanderlingh2012-10-01T10:52:01Z2012-10-01T10:52:01Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/800This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/8002012-10-01T10:52:01ZThermodynamics: paradigms, pedagogy and epistemologyLet me review the principal line of inquiry which takes us from pedagogy to paradigms and finally to epistemology. I began by asking about the current situation vis a vis teaching thermodynamics and observed that there is much controversy and no consensus.
I then introduced the concept of paradigm and specifically the concept of exemplars or shared examples. The argument here was that exemplars are necessary in the teaching of a discipline and without them there will be controversy. I claimed that thermodynamics does not have exemplars.
The crucial question then becomes «Why not?». I tried to answer this by looking at the role played by statistical mechanics in thermodynamics and kinetic theory since we might expect to find exemplars in statistical mechanics. But statistical mechanics is only a method of calculation. Without a consensus theory of probability embodied in models, there are no exemplars with which to structure the teaching of thermodynamics.
M.J. Zenzen2012-10-01T10:51:55Z2012-10-01T10:51:55Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/799This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7992012-10-01T10:51:55ZMultifractals: a thermodynamic characterization of scaling invariance in complex systemsIn this note, we discuss the multifractal description of anomalous scaling laws in physical phenomena. It is derived in the context of fully developed turbulence in three dimensional fluid. We stress the thermodynamic nature of the approach and its equivalence with a theory of finite volume fluctuations.
The main application fields of multifractality in physical phenomena are briefly discussed together with main successes and open problems.
G. PaladinA. Vulpiani2012-10-01T10:51:49Z2012-10-01T10:51:49Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/798This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7982012-10-01T10:51:49ZA new thermodynamical variable suggested by a study of free convection and by the symmetry of conjugate variablesThe analytical solution of a free convection problem is particularly simple thanks to the introduction of a variable $x$ which describes the features of the phenomenon independently of the boundary conditions.
The thermodynamical meaning of this variable is examined and the hypothesis is advanced that it generally represents the intensive conjugate of the internal energy and that the new couple obeys a general rule of symmetry similar to the other couples of coniugate variables such as $p-V$ and $S-T$.
By assuming this model, 6 new thermodynamical potentials are written which are coincident with the 3 classical ones when the system is close to equilibrium. The 12 Maxwell's relationships reduce contemporarily to 4.
The new description includes the Prigogine’s principle and may be applied to systems far from equilibrium. In particular, the time derivative of $x$ is aiways positive, providing a general picture of non-equilibrium which appears promising.
G. SonninoM. De Paz2012-10-01T10:51:44Z2013-01-23T07:37:53Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/797This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7972012-10-01T10:51:44ZShocks and changes of shape of second sound waveA generalized non linear Maxwell-Cattaneo equation is used to study shock waves propagating in a rigid heat conductor at low temperature.
Taking into account the experimental values for the second sound velocity, the existence of a critical temperature $ \tilde {\theta} $ characteristic of the materials and separating two farmilies of shocks, the "hot" and the "cold" ones, is proved both numerically and analytically. Finally a possible explanation of the distortion of the initial second sound thermal pulse during its propagation is proposed.
Tommaso Ruggeri2012-10-01T10:51:39Z2012-10-01T10:51:39Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/796This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7962012-10-01T10:51:39ZOn the generalization of the Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relationsThe existence of a curious dynamic state variable is detected for which the Onsager-Casimir reciprocal relations are violated. A generalization of the reciprocal relations is given apllying also for dynamic variables similar to the above mentioned one.Vincenzo Ciancio2012-10-01T10:51:32Z2012-10-01T10:51:32Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/795This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7952012-10-01T10:51:32ZSome remarks on generalized thermodynamicsG. BisioL. Marletta2012-10-01T10:51:27Z2012-10-01T10:51:27Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/794This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7942012-10-01T10:51:27ZExtended thermodynamics. An alternative to the Navier-Stockes-Fourier theory of gasesThis paper describes the results of a recent dissertation by W. Weiss [1]. The objective of this work is twofold:
i) determination of the range of validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory of a monatomic gas
ii) determination of the ranges of validy of the extended thermodynamic theories of 13, 14, 20, 35.. and -in general- $n$ moments.
The field equations of extended thermodynamics form a system of quasilinear first order differential equations of symmetric hyperbolic character. In its simplest form it takes 13 variables into account, namely the densities of mass, momentum and energy and the stress and heat flux. In that case the results correspond to the results of Grad’s 13-moment theory in the kinetic theory of gases. Further extensions contain more moments among the variables; generically there are $n$ variabies.
As measures of reliability we choose the ranges of frequency and wavelength, in which a given $n$ -type extended thermodynamics describes the dispersion of sound and the scattering of light well. It turns out that $n$ must be bigger the higher the sound frequency is and the smaller the wave length of a fluctuation is that scatters ligh.
This knowledge is important for the proper selection of a theory for a given boundary and initial value problem: In the temporal and spatial Fourier spectrum of the data we must only have such frequencies and wavelengths for which sound dispersion and light scattering are well-described by the theory.
Ingo Muller2012-10-01T10:51:20Z2012-10-01T10:51:20Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/792This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7922012-10-01T10:51:20ZThermodynamical composite systemsThe paper develops a concept of “composite system” on the basis laid by J. B. Serrin’s accumulation function. A mathematical structure is posed for the accumulation function of the composite system, on which a restriction arising from a “general heat transfer inequality” acts. The result is applied to generalize several questions in the classical thermodynamics of systems. Especially, a novel thermodynamical characterization of the “environment” of a system can be read from the main result.Manuel Monleon PradasJosè Gomez Ribelles2012-10-01T10:51:14Z2012-10-01T10:51:14Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/791This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7912012-10-01T10:51:14ZOn Callen's postulate systemThe criteria for the application of Callen's postulates are investigated. The result is a possibility of a general irreversible phenomenology. The physical, biological and economic examples are summarized.Katalin Martinas2012-10-01T10:51:07Z2012-10-01T10:51:07Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/789This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7892012-10-01T10:51:07ZOn the Boltzmann-Jeans conjecture for a classical "freezing" of fast degrees of freedomAt the turn of the century, before quantum mechanics, Boltzmann and Jeans proposed a purely classical interpretation of the lack of energy equipartion with the high-frequency degrees of freedom, for example the "freezing" of the internal vibrational degree of freedom in diatomic gases (at ordinary temperatures), or the lack of the ultraviolet catastrophe in a radiant cavity. This old conjecture is revisited in the light of some recent results, both numerical and analytical, in dynamical systems theory (classical perturbation theory; theory of adiabatic invariants). Giancarlo Benettin2012-10-01T10:50:59Z2012-10-01T10:50:59Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/787This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7872012-10-01T10:50:59ZWhat remains of carathéodory's thermodynamics?By constructing an unfamiliar perpetuum mobile of the second kind attention is called to the impotence of Carnot’s Principle to characterize (especially under the viewpoint of the phenomena of anomaly) a mathematical model of the universe of all thermodynamical systems in a correct way. A canonical way (in the spirit of Carathéodory) out of this dilemma will be sketched.Johann Walter2012-10-01T10:50:18Z2012-10-01T10:50:18Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/785This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7852012-10-01T10:50:18ZRiemannian geometry of the thermodynamics and critical phenomenaThis paper describes a Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics with a metric based on thermodynamic fluctuation theory. The resulting Riemannian thermodynamic curvature has been interpreted as the volume where classical thermodynamic fluctuation theory breaks down. Near the critical point, this volume is the correlation volume. Combining this interpretation with the well known proportionality between the free energy per volume and the inverse of the correlation volume yields the following hypothesis: the thermodynamic curvature is proportional to the inverse of the free energy. This thermodynamic hypothesis may be expressed as a partial differential equation for the free energy near the critical point. Its solution yields an equation of state in very good agreement with mean field theory, the three-dimensional Ising model, and experiment for the pure fluid. For the non-mean field theory exponents, the solution considered is not analytic in the whole one-phase region; the second derivative of the free energy suffers a discontinuity. George Ruppeiner2012-10-01T10:50:05Z2012-10-01T10:50:05Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/774This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7742012-10-01T10:50:05ZQuantum thermodynamics: new light upon the physicl meaning of entropy and the origin of irreversibilityWhat is the physical significance of entropy? What is the physical origin of irreversibility? Do entropy and irreversibility exist only for complex and macroscopic systems? The bulk of the physics community accepts and teaches that all these fundamental questions are rationalized within statistical mechanics. Indeed, for everyday laboratory physics, the mathematical formalism of statistical mechanics (canonical and grandcanonica1, Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions) allows a successful description of the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of matter, including entropy values. But an ever growing handful of physicists (Schrodinger among the first) have realized that, even in its explanation of the meaning of entropy, statistical mechanics is impaired by ambiguities and logical inconsistencies. They have started to search for a better theory to eliminate these stumbling blocks while maintaining the mathematical formalism that has been so successful in so many applications. This handful of upstreamers must not be confused with the many schools of physicists that have thrived on the more renowned incompleteness of statistical mechanics, namely, the lack of a quantitative (and the weakness of the qualitative) explanation of the origin of irreversibility. In these studies the thrust is provided by the discovery that the macroscopic dynamics of certain complex systems may be modeled using a few-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear Hamiltonian with singularities that give rise to bifurcations and chaotic behavior. These results have generated successful ways to describe irreversible behavior, but their link to the origin of irreversibility is still only heuristic (what is the connection between the nonlinear model Hamiltonian and the true full Hamiitonian?) and does not provide yet a rigorous resolution of the century-old paradox of the conflict between the irreversibiiity of macroscopic behavior, and the reversibility of the laws of mechanics. To resolve both the problem of the meaning of entropy and that of the origin of irreversibility we have built entropy and irreversibility into the laws of mechanics. The result is a theory that we call quantum thermodynamics that has all the necessary properties to combine mechanics and thermodynamics uniting all the successful results of both theories, eliminating the logical inconsistencies of statistical mechanics and the paradox on irreversibiiity, and providing an entirely new perspective on the microscopic origin of irreversibility, nonlinearity and therefore chaotic behavior. The mathematical formalism of quantum thermodynamics differs from that of statistical mechanics mainly in the equation of motion which is nonlinear but has solutions identical to those of the Schrodinger equation for all the states for which statistical mechanics reduces to quantum mechanics. The physical meaning of the formalism of quantum thermodynamics differs more drastically from that of statistical mechanics. The significance of the state operator of quantum thermodynamics is entirely different from that of the density operator of statistical mechanics, even though the two are mathematically equivalent. Indeed they obey different equations of motion. In particular, quantum thermodynamics is concerned only with those systems for which quantum mechanics would describe the states with vectors in Hilbert space or, equivalently, projection operators. Using a well known jargon, we can say that quantum thermodynamics like quantum mechanics is concerned only with pure quantum states. However, it postulates that the set of pure quantum states of a system is much broader than contemplated by quantum mechanics. Pure quantum states must be described by operators defined by all the features of projection operators except the condition of idempotence. As a result, an operator that within statistical mechanics would describe a mixed quantum state (that is, the average state of a statistical mixture of identical systems in different pure quantum states) in quantum thermodynamics describes a pure quantum state, a state that neither quantum mechanics non statistical mechanics would contemplate. Conceptually, the increased richness of pure quantum states is a new revolutionary postulate of quantum physics. But from the point of view of the statistical mechanics practitioners the new theory is not as traumatic as it seems. Whenever one uses a nonidempotent density operator to describe a thermodynamic equilibrium state one simply has to reinterpret it as one of the new pure quantum states. One even saves the usual ad hoc arguments on thermal baths and reservoirs that are usually required in statistical mechanics to justify the use of a nonidempotent density operator to describe the state of a system. In this paper we discuss the background and formalism of quantum thermodynamics including its nonlinear equation of motion and the main general results. Our objective is to show in a not-too-technical manner that this theory provides indeed a complete and coherent resolution of the century-old dilemma on the meaning of entropy and the origin of irreversibility. As a byproduct, we discuss a long set of criteria that a theory should meet in order to afford the same claim.Gian Paolo Beretta2012-10-01T10:49:56Z2012-10-01T10:49:56Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/773This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7732012-10-01T10:49:56ZThermodynamic irreversibility: what is it and where does it come from?The entropic irreversibility of thermnodynamic descriptions of fluid behavior is often contrasted with the dynamical reversibility of the underlying molecular model. There is no conflict, however, if we distinguish among different kinds of irreversibility. The thermodynamic kind is not opposed to dynamical reversibility. It is a directional irreversibility that is a common feature of stochastic descriptions arising from the excessive time symmetry of such descriptions; entropy is created in both directions of time. Symmetric stochastic descriptions can be compatible with asymmetric dynamical descriptions for one direction of any fluid process but not in the other direction. The origin of thermodynamic irreversibility in the dynamical molecular model is a constraint on initial conditions that rules out the non-stochastic direction. The constraint materializes in any molecular model for any number of molecules whenever the times between changes of external conditions are short compared to the lengths of equilibrium intervals. In the case of an observable fluid the equilibrium intervals are overwhelmingly larger than the times between interruptions and the fluid is maintained in a condition of having a quickly interrupted equilibrium in its recent past. This guarantees the randomness that permits a stochastic description but it does not imply that the actual fluid behavior is symmetric in time. If time were reversed the fluid process would certainly be reversed and it would not obey the second law. Henry B. Hollinger2012-10-01T10:49:15Z2012-10-01T10:49:15Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/768This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/7682012-10-01T10:49:15ZThe harmony of educational and logical priorities in thermodynamicsThe postulational presentation of the macroscopic thermodynamics of equilibrium (MTE) was guided by pedagogical concerns. Subsequent study turned toward identifying the logical basis for the pragmatic success of MTE. The condition of conceptual clarity is the definition of concepts which mediate between reliable experiment and rigorous mathematics. Such a definition is achieved in terms of an “interpreted deductive system” which may be considered as a device to construct from an input of primitive mathematical concepts and postulates an output of derived concepts and theorems which is related to experiments over a specified domain, MTE is indeed a logical configuration of this sort. Another of its characteristic features is that its experimental background includes chemistry. It is suggested that the proper relation between the disciplines is that physics is to provide the universal concepts in terms of which chemical processes can be accounted for. This concept formation worked well during the last century: an outstanding example is the entropy concept. A new instance of concept formation presented here for the first time is the “principle of chemical determinism” as the logical basis for the Nernst theorem. Laszlo Tisza2012-09-19T10:55:33Z2013-01-22T08:29:56Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/688This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/6882012-09-19T10:55:33ZOn entropy and heatSome confused, and confusing, views of various thermodynamic concepts are addressed, and the relationship between heat and entropy is discussed in this context.W.T. Grandy2012-09-19T10:43:18Z2012-09-19T10:43:18Zhttp://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/684This item is in the repository with the URL: http://cab.unime.it/mus/id/eprint/6842012-09-19T10:43:18ZThe reason of the conferenceM. Vicentini Missoni