Self-employment and Entrepreneurship for Youngs and Adults with Neurodevelopmental or Psychiatric Disorders: a Systematic Review

Silvia Iacomini, Luca Vascelli, Federica Berardo, Francesca Cavallini, Anna Dipace

Abstract


Background: Self-employment and entrepreneurship are growing realities and represent a valid employment option for people with disabilities. Indeed, such strategies promote independence and reduce employment disparities, encourage innovative proposals, and create new jobs.
Methods: This paper provides an overview of self-employment and entrepreneurship for young and adults with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders to support mental health professionals, employment support service providers, and transition educators. To fulfil this intention, we conducted a systematic review using the criteria of the PRISMA statement to examine the literature's scientific contributions up to 2021. We focused on entrepreneurship motivations, entrepreneurship education, associated clinical features, and barriers experienced. We also explored the support needed to start a business and the associated employment outcomes for the target population of this review.
Results: Self-employment and entrepreneurship can empower people with disabilities to mark the community through social and economic participation. Therefore, it is essential to develop evidence-based acceptable practices for entrepreneurship and self-employment for people with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders.
Conclusions: If entrepreneurship and self-employment can become effective employment strategies, it is crucial to consider this population's experiences in developing employment programs and policies for people with disabilities.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas, L. N., & Md Khair, S. N. (2017). Entrepreneurial Intention among Special Needs Students. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 25, 55-66.

Ali, A. J., Khalid, J., Ali, M. H., & Razali, R. (2019). Social entrepreneurship and its impact on society: special social-entrepreneurs@ higher education programme in Malaysia. ICCD, 2 (1), 1-8.

Bornstein, D., & Davis, S. (2010). Social entrepreneurship: What everyone needs to know. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Brooks-Lane, N., Hutcheson, S., & Revell, G. (2005). Supporting consumer directed employment outcomes. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 23(2), 123-134.

Caldwell, K. (2014). By the bootstraps: Social entrepreneurs with intellectual disabilities and the reification of success. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois.

Caldwell, K., Harris, S. P., & Renko, M. (2016). Social entrepreneurs with disabilities: Exploring motivational and attitudinal factors. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, 5(1), 211-244.

Caldwell, K., Harris, S. P., & Renko, M. (2019). Inclusive Outcomes for Social Entrepreneurs With Intellectual Disability:“What Happens When They Act”. Inclusion, 7(4), 204-219. https://doi.org/10.1352/2326-6988-7.4.204

Caldwell, K., Parker Harris, S., & Renko, M. (2020). Inclusive management for social entrepreneurs with intellectual disabilities: “how they act”. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 33(2), 204-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12662

Conroy, J. W., Ferris, C. S., & Irvine, R. (2010). Microenterprise options for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: An outcome evaluation. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 7(4), 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2010.00276.x

Dimic, N., & Orlov, V. (2014). Entrepreneurial tendencies among people with ADHD. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 13(3), 187-204. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2405366

Dotson, W. H., Richman, D. M., Abby, L., Thompson, S., & Plotner, A. (2013). Teaching skills related to self-employment to adults with developmental disabilities: An analog analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(8), 2336-2350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.04.009

Gelaidan, H. M., & Abdullateef, A. O. (2017). Entrepreneurial intentions of business students in Malaysia: The role of self-confidence, educational and relation support. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-06-2016-0078

Grigal, M., Hart, D., & Migliore, A. (2011). Comparing the transition planning, postsecondary education, and employment outcomes of students with intellectual and other disabilities. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 34(1), 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0885728811399091

Hagner, D., & Davies, T. (2002). “Doing my own thing”: Supported self-employment for individuals with cognitive disabilities. Journal of vocational rehabilitation, 17(2), 65-74.

Harris, S. P., Renko, M., & Caldwell, K. (2013). Accessing social entrepreneurship: Perspectives of people with disabilities and key stakeholders. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 38(1), 35-48.

Maritz, A., & Laferriere, R. (2016). Entrepreneurship and self-employment for people with disabilities. Australian Journal of Career Development, 25(2), 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1038416216658044

National Organization on Disability. (2010). The ADA, 20 years later. NOD 2010 Survey of Americans with Disabilities. New York, NY: Kessler Foundation.

Nurbaity, E., Utami, V., & Maulida, E. (2019). Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions Disability Students in Higher Education, EasyChair, 2116.

O'Day, B., Kleinman, R., Fischer, B., Morris, E., & Blyler, C. (2017). Preventing unemployment and disability benefit receipt among people with mental illness: Evidence review and policy significance. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 40(2), 123. https://doi.org/10.1037/prj0000253

Olufemi, A. M., Favour, J. T., & Olaosebikan, O. A. (2017). Efficacy of Vocational Training as an Integral Part of Entrepreneurship Education as a Transition Programme for Persons With Intellectual Disability in Oyo State. Advances in Economics and Business, 5 (12), 663-669.

Ostrow, L., Smith, C., Penney, D., & Shumway, M. (2019). “It suits my needs”: Self-employed individuals with psychiatric disabilities and small businesses. Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, 42(2), 121. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/prj0000341

Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., ... & Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. Systematic reviews, 10(1), 1-11.

Parker Harris, S., Renko, M., & Caldwell, K. (2014). Social Entrepreneurship as an Employment Pathway for People with Disabilities: Exploring Political-Economic and Socio-Cultural Factors. Disability & Society, 29(8), 1275-1290. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2014.924904

Shaheen, G. E. (2016). “Inclusive Entrepreneurship”: A Process for Improving Self-Employment for People with Disabilities. Journal of Policy Practice, 15(1-2), 58-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/15588742.2016.1109963

Shaw, E., & Carter, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship. Journal of small business and enterprise development. https://doi.org/10.1108/14626000710773529

Swarbrick, M., & Stahl, P. (2009). Wellness and recovery through asset building services. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 25(3-4), 335-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/01642120903084091

Thoresen, S. H., Thomson, A., Jackson, R., & Cocks, E. (2018). Meaningful social and economic inclusion through small business enterprise models of employment for adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 49(2), 161-172. http://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-180962

Wiklund, J., Patzelt, H., & Dimov, D. (2016). Entrepreneurship and psychological disorders: How ADHD can be productively harnessed. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 6, 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2016.07.001

Yamamoto, S., Unruh, D., & Bullis, M. (2011). The viability of self-employment for individuals with disabilities in the United States: A synthesis of the empirical-research literature. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 35(2), 117-127.

Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of business venturing, 24(5), 519-532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.04.007




DOI: https://doi.org/10.13129/2612-4033/0110-3541

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.