Letter to the Editor: the application of transcranial direct current stimulation on phantom phenomena

Graziella Orrù, Valentina Cesari, Martina Baroni, Ciro Conversano, Rebecca Ciacchini, Danilo Menicucci, Angelo Gemignani


Phantom limb phenomena are often reported by patients after the amputation or deafferentation of limbs. The most debilitating condition is named phantom limb pain and, to present, an efficacious treatment is not been identify, yet. However, alternative non-invasive treatments such as transcranial direct current stimulation could be a valid approach in order to modulate pain. Based on the studies considered, tDCS might represent a potential novel tool able to reduce phantom limb symptoms. Due to the limited number of investigations, the positive outcomes summarized in this letter to editor need to be interpreted with caution.


Transcranial direct current stimulation; tDCS- Amputation; Phantom limb phenomena; Phantom limb; Phantom limb pain.

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