A pilot study on alexithymia in adopted youths: prevalence and relationships with emotional-behavioral problems

Stefania Muzi, Cecilia Serena Pace


Adopted adolescents show high rates of emotional-behavioral problems and they could also be more vulnerable to alexithymia, a risk factor for psychopathology in adolescents, that is more frequent in case of early relational trauma(s), often experienced by adoptees in pre-adoption life. However, no studies investigate alexithymia in adopted adolescents, therefore this pilot study aimed to: (a) assess the prevalence of alexithymia in adoptees in comparison with a national representative sample; (b) examine the relationships between alexithymia and emotional-behavioral problems in adoptees. Participants were 33 adoptees aged 10-19 years (54.5% boys), enrolled through social services. Measures were the self-report questionnaire Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20-item to measure participants’ alexithymia, and the Youth Self Report 11-18 years to assess emotional-behavioral problems. Main results highlighted: 1) 71% of adoptees with moderate-to-high levels of alexithymia, with adoptees as significantly more border-alexithymic (55%) than in normative peers; 2)  Alexithymia and its factors Difficulty to identifying Feelings and Externally Oriented Thinking were related to more total, internalizing, externalizing and other problems (social, attentional, thought, binge-drinking, substance abuse, suicidality, etc...); 3) The difficulty identifying feelings was the unique predictor for 38% of total problems, 40% of internalizing ones, 22% of externalizing ones and 30% of other problems. In conclusion, the results suggest the clinical and scientific relevance of continuing the study of alexithymia in adopted adolescents, and future directions of research are suggested.


Alexithymia; Adopted child; Emotional-behavioral problems; Adolescence; Mixed-method.

Full Text:



Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school—age forms and profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children Youth and Families.

Allen, L. B., Lu, Q., Tsao, J. C., Hayes, L. P., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2011). Depression partially mediates the relationship between alexithymia and somatization in a sample of healthy children. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(8), 1177-1186. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105311402407.

Askeland, K. G., Hysing, M., La Greca, A. M., Aarø, L. E., Tell, G. S., & Sivertsen, B. (2017). Mental health in internationally adopted adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(3), 203-213. https://doi.org/1 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.12.009.

Aust, S., Härtwig, E. A., Heuser, I., & Bajbouj, M. (2013). The role of early emotional neglect in alexithymia. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(3), 225–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027314

Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D., & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale—I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of psychosomatic research, 38(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(94)90005-1

Bagby, R. M., Taylor, G. J., Parker, J. D., & Dickens, S. E. (2006). The development of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia: item selection, factor structure, reliability and concurrent validity. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 75(1), 25-39. https://doi.org/10.1159/000089224.

Barone, L., & Lionetti, F. (2012). Attachment and emotional understanding: a study on late‐adopted pre‐schoolers and their parents. Child: care, health and development, 38(5), 690-696. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01296.x

Barone, L., Lionetti, F., & Green, J. (2017). A matter of attachment? How adoptive parents foster post-institutionalized children’s social and emotional adjustment. Attachment & human development, 19(4), 323-339. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2017.1306714

Barroso, R., Barbosa-Ducharne, M., Coelho, V., Costa, I. S., & Silva, A. (2017). Psychological adjustment in intercountry and domestic adopted adolescents: A systematic review. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 34(5), 399-418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-016-0485-x.

Batki, A. (2018). The impact of early institutional care on emotion regulation: studying the play narratives of post-institutionalized and early adopted children. Early Child Development and Care, 188(12), 1801-1815.


Bimmel, N., Juffer, F., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2003). Problem behavior of internationally adopted adolescents: A review and meta-analysis Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 11(2), 64-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/10673220303955.

Bizzi, F., Shmueli-Goetz, Y., Castellano, R., San Martini, P., & Cavanna, D. (2020). Psychometric Properties of the Child Attachment Interview in Italian Context: A Focus on Normative and Specific Clinical Groups in School-Aged Children. Psychological Reports, 0033294120905515. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0033294120905515

Boisjoli, C., Hébert, M., Gauthier-Duchesne, A., & Caron, P. O. (2019). A mediational model linking perceptions of security, alexithymia and behavior problems of sexually abused children. Child abuse & neglect, 92, 66-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.017.

Bressi, C., Taylor, G., Parker, J., Bressi, S., Brambilla, V., Aguglia, E, Allegranti, I., Bongiorno, A., Giberti, F., Bucca, M., Todarello, O., Callegari, C., Vender, S., Gala, C., & Invernizzi, C. (1996). Cross validation of the factor structure of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: an Italian multicenter study. Journal of psychosomatic research, 41(6), 551-559.

Camoirano, A. (2017). Mentalizing makes parenting work: A review about parental reflective functioning and clinical interventions to improve it. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00014

Caretti, V., Porcelli, P., Solano, L., Schimmenti, A., Bagby, R. M., & Taylor, G. J. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample from Italy. Psychiatry research, 187(3), 432-436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2011.02.015

Carrera, P., Jiménez‐Morago, J. M., Román, M., & León, E. (2020). Differential associations of threat and deprivation with emotion understanding in maltreated children in foster care. Child & Family Social Work, 25(4), 973-982. https://doi.org/10.1111/cfs.12783

Craparo, G., Faraci, P., & Gori, A. (2015). Psychometric properties of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a group of Italian younger adolescents. Psychiatry investigation, 12(4), 500. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2015.12.4.500

Craparo, G., Magnano, P., Zapparrata, M. V., Gori, A., Costanzo, G., Pace, U., & Pellerone, M. (2018). Coping, attachment style and resilience: the mediating role of alexithymia. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2018.6.1773

Di Trani, M., Presaghi, F., Renzi, A., Greenman, P. S., & Solano, L. (2018). The Italian Version of the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children (AQC): factor structure and reliability. Rassegna di Psicologia, 35(2), 47-60.

Eastabrook, J. (2013). Emotional awareness and alexithymia: Emotional processing and regulation in adolescence [Doctoral dissertation, Queen’s University, Kingston].


Erden, D. (2005). Relationship Between Unlike Grow up Conditions and Alexithymia, Depression, Psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(2), 60-66.

Ferrari, L., Rosnati, R., Manzi, C., & Benet‐Martínez, V. (2015b). Ethnic identity, bicultural identity integration, and psychological well‐being among transracial adoptees: A longitudinal study. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2015(150), 63-76. https://doi.org/10.1002/cad.20122.

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E. L., & Target, M. (2002). Affect Regulation, Mentalisation, and the Development of the Self. Other Press.

Frigerio, A. Rucci, P., Goodman, R., Ammaniti, M., Carlet, O., Cavolina, P., De Girolameo, G., Lenti, C., Lucarelli, L., Mani, E., Martinuzzi, A., Micali, N., Milone, A., Morosini, P., Muratori, F., Nardocci, F., Pastore, V., Polidori, G., Tullini, A., …, Molteni, M. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among adolescents in Italy: the PrISMA study. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 18(4), 217-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-0720-x

Gatta, M., Facca, I., Colombo, E., Svanellini, L., Montagnese, S., & Schiff, S. (2014). Alexithymia, psychopathology and alcohol misuse in adolescence: a population based study on 3556 teenagers. Neuroscience and Medicine, 5(01), 60.https://doi.org/10.4236/nm.2014.51009.

George, C., Main, M., & Kaplan, N. (1985). Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/t02879-000.

Goerlich, K. S. (2018). The multifaceted nature of alexithymia–a neuroscientific perspective. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1614. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01614

Goldsmith, R.E. & Freyd, J.J. (2005). Awareness for emotional abuse. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 5, 95–123. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v05n01_04

Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of psychopathology and behavioral assessment, 26(1), 41-54. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94

Hawk, B. N., & McCall, R. B. (2011). Specific extreme behaviors of postinstitutionalized Russian adoptees. Developmental psychology, 47(3), 732. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021108.

Honkalampi, K., Tolmunen, T., Hintikka, J., Rissanen, M. L., Kylmä, J., & Laukkanen, E. (2009). The prevalence of alexithymia and its relationship with Youth Self-Report problem scales among Finnish adolescents. Comprehensive psychiatry, 50(3), 263-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.08.007.

International Adoption Commission (2019). Dati e prospettive nelle Adozioni Internazionali. Rapporto sui fascicoli dal 1° gennaio al 31 dicembre 2019. Commissione Adozioni. http://www.commissioneadozioni.it/media/1619/report-annuale-cai-2019.pdf

Jewell, T., Gardner, T., Susi, K., Watchorn, K., Coopey, E., Simic, M., Fonagy, P. & Eisler, I. (2019). Attachment measures in middle childhood and adolescence: A systematic review of measurement properties. Clinical psychology review, 68, 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2018.12.004

Juffer, F., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2005). Behavior problems and mental health referrals of international adoptees: A meta-analysis. Jama, 293(20), 2501-2515. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.20.2501

Juffer, F., Palacios, J., Le Mare, L., Sonuga‐Barke, E. J., Tieman, W., Bakermans‐Kranenburg, M. J., Vorria, P., van Ijzendoorn, M., & Verhulst, F. C. (2011). II. Development of adopted children with histories of early adversity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76(4), 31-61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2011.00627.x

Karukivi, M., Hautala, L., Korpelainen, J., Haapasalo-Pesu, K. M., Liuksila, P. R., Joukamaa, M., & Saarijärvi, S. (2010a). Alexithymia and eating disorder symptoms in adolescents. Eating Disorders, 18(3), 226-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640261003719518.

Karukivi, M., Hautala, L., Kaleva, O., Haapasalo-Pesu, K. M., Liuksila, P. R., Joukamaa, M., & Saarijärvi, S. (2010b). Alexithymia is associated with anxiety among adolescents. Journal of affective disorders, 125(1-3), 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.126

Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and Selfhealing: Affect, Trauma, Alexithymia. Analytic Press, Inc.

La Ferlita, V., Bonadies, M., Solano, L., De Gennaro, L., & Gonini, P. (2007). Alessitimia e adolescenza: studio preliminare di validazione della TAS-20 su un campione di 360 adolescenti italiani. Infanzia e adolescenza, 6(3), 131-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1710/324.3814

Layne, C. M., Greeson, J. K. P., Ostrowski, S. A., Kim, S., Reading, S., Vivrette, R. L., Briggs, E. C., Fairbank, J. A., & Pynoos, R. S. (2014). Cumulative trauma exposure and high risk behavior in adolescence: Findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(Suppl 1), S40–S49. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037799

Lausi, G., Quaglieri, A., Burrai, J., Mari, E., & Giannini, A. M. (2020). Development of the DERS-20 among the Italian population: a study for a short form of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/mjcp-2511

Lavaf, H., Ghanbari, S., & Shokri, O. (2016). The mediating role of internalizing problems in the relationship between alexithymia and externalizing problems. Developmental Psychology: Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 12 (48), 413-425.

Leonardi, V., Caracciolo, M., & Mallamace, D. (2014). Attachment and alexithymia: the role of emotions from the affective deprivation towards illness. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2013.1.947

León, E., Steele, M., Palacios, J., Román, M., & Moreno, C. (2018). Parenting adoptive children: Reflective functioning and parent-child interactions. A comparative, relational and predictive study. Children and Youth Services Review, 95, 352-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.009

Lumley, M. A., Neely, L. C., & Burger, A. J. (2007). The assessment of alexithymia in medical settings: implications for understanding and treating health problems. Journal of personality assessment, 89(3), 230-246. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080%2F00223890701629698

Madigan, S., Brumariu, L. E., Villani, V., Atkinson, L., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2016). Representational and questionnaire measures of attachment: A meta-analysis of relations to child internalizing and externalizing problems. Psychological Bulletin, 142(4), 367. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000029

Mannarini, S., Balottin, L., Toldo, I., & Gatta, M. (2016). Alexithymia and psychosocial problems among Italian preadolescents. A latent class analysis approach. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 57(5), 473-481. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12300.

Manninen, M., Therman, S., Suvisaari, J., Ebeling, H., Moilanen, I., Huttunen, M., & Joukamaa, M. (2011). Alexithymia is common among adolescents with severe disruptive behavior. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 199(7), 506-509. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182214281

Messina, A., Beadle, J.N., & Paradiso, S. (2014). Towards a classification of alexithymia: primary, secondary and organic. Journal of psychopathology, 20, 38-49.

Montebarocci, O., & Surcinelli, P. (2018). Correlations between TSIA and TAS-20 and their relation to self-reported negative affect: A study using a multi-method approach in the assessment of alexithymia in a nonclinical sample from Italy. Psychiatry research, 270, 187-193. 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.09.036.

Muzi, S. (2020). A narrative review on alexithymia in adolescents with previous adverse experiences placed for adoption, in foster care, or institutions. Prevalence, gender differences, and relations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/mjcp-2449

Muzi, S., & Pace, C.S. (2020). Relazioni tra sintomi internalizzanti ed esternalizzanti, attaccamento, regolazione emotiva e alessitimia in adolescenti in comunità residenziale. Psicologia clinica dello sviluppo, 24(1), 117-126. https://www.rivisteweb.it/doi/10.1449/95801

Orsini, A., Pezzuti, L., & Picone, L. (2012). WISC-IV: Contributo alla taratura italiana. Giunti O.S.

Pace, C. S., Di Folco, S., Guerriero, V., Santona, A., & Terrone, G. (2015). Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1433. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01433.

Pace, C.S., & Muzi, S. (2017). Adolescenza in famiglie adottive e biologiche: sintomi psicopatologici e strategie di regolazione emotiva. Giornale italiano di psicologia, 44 (3), 783-791. https://www.rivisteweb.it/doi/10.1421/88386

Pace, C.S., Di Folco, S., &, Guerriero, V., (2018). Late‐adoptions in adolescence: can attachment and emotion regulation influence behaviour problems? A controlled study using a moderation approach. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 25(2), 250–262. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2158.

Pace, C.S., Di Folco, S., Guerriero, V., & Muzi, S. (2019). Late-adopted children grown up: a long-term longitudinal study on attachment patterns of adolescent adoptees and their adoptive mothers. Attachment & human development, 21(4), 372-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2019.1571519

Pace, C.S., Muzi, S., Calugi, S., & Dalle Grave, R. (2020a). Attachment representations and alexithymia in community adolescents with binge-eating attitudes. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-00897-5

Pace, C.S., Muzi, S., & Steele, H. (2020b). Adolescents’ Attachment: Content and Discriminant Validity of the Friends and Family Interview. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(4), 1173-1186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01654-8

Paivio, S. C., & McCulloch, C. R. (2004). Alexithymia as a mediator between childhood trauma and self-injurious behaviors. Child abuse & neglect, 28(3), 339-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.11.018

Parker, J. D., Eastabrook, J. M., Keefer, K. V., & Wood, L. M. (2010). Can alexithymia be assessed in adolescents? Psychometric properties of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in younger, middle, and older adolescents. Psychological assessment, 22(4), 798. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020256

Patwardhan, I., Mason, W. A., Chmelka, M. B., Savolainen, J., Miettunen, J., & Järvelin, M. R. (2019). Prospective relations between alexithymia, substance use and depression: findings from a National Birth Cohort. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 73(6), 340-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2019.1634758

Paull, K. (2013) Alexithymia, attachment and psychological wellbeing in young adults leaving care. [Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University]. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6a43/74e561c89154cce4fbd482a308cbc102a351.pdf

Pellerone, M., Formica, I., Lopez, M. H., Migliorisi, S., & Granà, R. (2017). Relationship between parenting, alexithymia and adult attachment styles: a cross-national study in Sicilian and Andalusian young adults. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2017.5.1557

Powell, S., Coll, K. M., Trotter, A., Thobro, P., & Haas, R. (2011). Psychosocial correlates of alexithymia in a rural adolescent residential population. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 28(4), 327-344. https://doi.org/10.1080/0886571X.2011.625284

Rescorla, L., Ivanova, M. Y., Achenbach, T. M., Begovac, I., Chahed, M., Drugli, M. B., Ribas Emerich, D., Fung, D.S.S., Haider, M., Hansson, K., Hewitt, N., Jaimes, S., Larsson, B., Maggiolini, A., Marković, J., Mitrović, D., Moreira, P., Oliveira, J.T., Olsson, M., … Hewitt, N. (2012). International epidemiology of child and adolescent psychopathology II: integration and applications of dimensional findings from 44 societies. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(12), 1273-1283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.09.012

Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., & Terwogt, M. M. (2006). An alexithymia questionnaire for children: Factorial and concurrent validation results. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(1), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.013

Sayar, K., & Kose, S. (2003). The Relationship Between Alexithymia and Dissociation in an Adolescent Sample. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni, 13(4), 167–173.

Sayar, K., Kose, S., Grabe, H. J., & Topbas, M. (2005). Alexithymia and dissociative tendencies in an adolescent sample from Eastern Turkey. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 59(2), 127-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01346.x

Schimmenti, A., & Caretti, V. (2018). Attachment, Trauma, and Alexithymia. In O. Luminet, R. Bagby, & G. Taylor (Eds.), Alexithymia: Advances in Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice (pp. 127-141). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108241595.010

Sekely, A., Michael Bagby, R., & Porcelli, P. (2018). Assessment of the Alexithymia Construct. In O. Luminet, R. Bagby, & G. Taylor (Eds.), Alexithymia: Advances in Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice (pp. 17-32). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108241595.004

Settineri, S. (2019). Clinical Psychology and adolescence. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(2), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/2019.7.2248

Sifneos, P. E. (1988). Alexithymia and its relationship to hemispheric specialization, affect, and creativity. Psychiatric Clinics, 11(3), 287-292.

Shmueli-Goetz, Y., Target, M., Fonagy, P., Datta, A. (2008) The child attachment interview: A psychometric study of reliability and discriminant validity. Developmental Psychology, 44 (4), 939 - 956. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012- 1649.44.4.939

Steele, H., & Steele, M. (2005). The Construct of Coherence as an Indicator of Attachment Security in Middle Childhood: The Friends and Family Interview. In K. A. Kerns & R. A. Richardson (Eds.), Attachment in middle childhood (p. 137–160). The Guilford Press.

Swart, M., Kortekaas, R., & Aleman, A. (2009). Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing. PloS one, 4(6), e5751. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005751

Taylor, G. J. (2010). Affects, trauma, and mechanisms of symptom formation: a tribute to John C. Nemiah, MD (1918–2009). Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 79(6), 339-349. https://doi.org/10.1159/000320119

Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2012). The alexithymia personality dimension. In T. A. Widiger (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology. The Oxford handbook of personality disorders (pp. 648-673). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199735013.013.0030

Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. (1997). Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. Cambridge University Press.

Tottenham, N., Hare, T. A., Quinn, B. T., McCarry, T. W., Nurse, M., Gilhooly, T., Milner, A., Galvan, A., Davidson, M.C., Eigsti, I., Thomas, K. M., Freed, P., Booma, E.S., Gunnar, M., Altemus, M., Aronson, J., & Casey, B.J. (2010). Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically large amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation. Developmental science, 13(1), 46-61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00852.x

Uzal, G., Yavuz, M., Akdeniz, B., Calli, S., & Bolat, N. (2018). Istanbul ilinde ogrenim goren lise ogrencilerinde aleksitimi karakter ozellikleri ile ust bilis ozellikleri ve ruhsal sorunlar arasindaki iliskinin incelenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 19(5), 478-485. https://doi.org/10.5455/apd.289804

van der Cruijsen, R., Murphy, J., & Bird, G. (2019). Alexithymic traits can explain the association between puberty and symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescent females. PloS one, 14(1), e0210519. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210519

Velotti, P., Garofalo, C., Petrocchi, C., Cavallo, F., Popolo, R., & Dimaggio, G. (2016). Alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression: A multiple mediation model. Psychiatry research, 237, 296-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.01.025

Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—Fourth edition (WISC-IV). The Psychological Corporation.

Zlotnick, C., Mattia, J. I., & Zimmerman, M. (2001). The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood trauma and alexithymia in an outpatient sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(1), 177-188. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007899918410

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/mjcp-2583


  • There are currently no refbacks.