Psychosocial Factors and Clinical Predictors of Suicide Risk in College Students

Anyerson Stiths Gómez


Suicidal behavior in youth is a multi-causal phenomenon and a global public health problem. Studies to identify risk factors have increased in recent decades, however, studies rarely examine the combined and mediating effect of multiple psychosocial and clinical factors in predicting suicidal risk in college students. This study aims to analyze the psychosocial risk factors and clinical predictors associated directly and indirectly with suicide risk in Colombian university students. 786 students between the ages of 16 and 30 (M=22.34 years; SD=4.7) from the Luis Amigó Catholic University (Colombia) participated. 72% were women and 28% men. An ad hoc socio-demographic card was used with information about the history of attempted suicide (SAS), mental disorder (HMI) and family suicide attempts (SAF). Plutchik's Suicide Risk Scale (SR), Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck's Anxiety Scale (BAI) and Depression Scale (BDI) and Barratt's Impulsivity Scale (BIS) were used. It was found that 22% of the college students were at risk of suicide and 9.7% had attempted suicide in the past year. Significant (p<0.01) and positive correlations were found between SR, SAS, HMI, SAF, BHS, BAI, BDI and BIS. Binary regression analysis showed that depression (OR=1.2) anxiety (OR=1), impulsivity (OR=1.1), suicide attempts (OR=70), mental disorder and family suicide attempts (OR=2.0; OR=3.8) explained between 45% and 68% of the suicide risk variance. The structural equation model showed that impulsivity and suicide attempt are mediating variables for suicide risk. The totality of independent variables explained 65% of suicidal risk. These findings will help to orient the design of clinical strategies for the detection, prevention and intervention of suicidal risk in university contexts.


Suicide; Psychopathology; Risk; College students.

Full Text:



Abela, J. R. Z., & Sullivan, C. (2003). A Test of Beck’s Cognitive Diathesis-Stress Theory of Depression in Early Adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 23(4), 384–404.

Alasaarela, L., Hakko, H., Riala, K., & Riipinen, P. (2017). Association of self-reported impulsivity to nonsuicidal self-injury, suicidality, and mortality in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 205(5), 340-345.

Aliaga, J., Rodríguez, L., Ponce, C., Frisancho, A., & Vereau J. (2006). Escala de Desesperanza de Beck: adaptación y características psicométricas. Revista de investigación en psicología, 9(1), 69-79.

Antúnez, Z., & Vinet, E. V. (2012). Escalas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés (DASS – 21): Validación de la Versión Abreviada en Estudiantes Universitarios Chilenos. Terapia psicológica, 30 (3), 49-55.

Amodeo, A. L., Picariello, S., Valerio, P., Bochicchio, V., & Scandurra, C. (2017). Group psychodynamic counselling with final-year undergraduates in clinical psychology: A clinical methodology to reinforce academic identity and psychological well-being. Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations, 23(2), 161–180.

Asarnow, J. R., Baraff, L. J., Berk, M., Grob, C., Devich-Navarro, M., Suddath, R., Piacentini, J., & Tang, L. (2008). Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 958–966.

Auerbach, R. P., Stewart, J. G., & Johnson, S. L. (2017). Impulsivity and Suicidality in Adolescent Inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(1), 91-103.

Baca, G, E., & Aroca, F. (2014). Factores de riesgo de la conducta suicida asociados a trastornos depresivos y ansiedad. Salud Mental, 37(5), 373-380.

Bahamón, M., Alarcón-Vásquez, Y., Trejos, A. M., Reyes, L., Uribe, J., & García, C. (2018). Prácticas parentales como predictoras de la ideación suicida en adolescentes colombianos. Psicogente, 21(39), 50-61.

Ballard, E. D., Cwik, M., Van Eck, K., Goldstein, M., Alfes, C., Wilson, M. E., Virden, J., Horowitz, L., & Wilcox, H. C. (2016). Identification of At-Risk Youth by Suicide Screening in a Pediatric Emergency Department. Prevention Science, 18(2), 174–182.

Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(6), 861–865.

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press (Trad. esp. en Bilbao: Desclée de Brower, 1983).

Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1989). Clinical predictors of eventual suicide: a 5- to 10-year prospective study of suicide attempters. Journal of Affective Disorders, 17(3), 203–209.

Beck, A. T. & Steer, R. A. (1993). Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Borges, G., Benjet, C., Medina-Mora, M. E., Orozco, R., & Nock, M. (2018). Suicide ideation, plan, and attempt in the Mexican adolescent mental health survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(1), 41-52.

Brent, D. A., & Melhem, N. (2008). Familial Transmission of Suicidal Behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31(2), 157–177.

Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. NY: Routledge.

Carpiniello, B., Lai, L., Pirarba, S., Sardu, C., & Pinna, F. (2011). Impulsivity and aggressiveness in bipolar disorder with co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, 188(1), 40-44.

Cha, C. B., Wilson, K. M., Tezanos, K. M., DiVasto, K. A., & Tolchin, G. K. (2018). Cognition and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 69, 97-111.

Cipriano, A., Cella, S., & Cotrufo, P. (2017). Nonsuicidal Self-injury: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1946.

Conversano, C. (2019). Psychological common factors in chronic diseases. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2727.

Cramer, R. J., & Kapusta, N. D. (2017). A Social-Ecological Framework of Theory, Assessment, and Prevention of Suicide. Frontiers in Psychology, 8.

Cova, F., Alvial, W., Aro, M., Bonifetti, A., Hernández, M., & Rodríguez, C. (2007). Problemas de salud mental en estudiantes de la Universidad de Concepción. Terapia Psicológica, 25, 105 – 112.

Dhingra, K., Boduszek, D., & O’Connor, R. C. (2015). Differentiating suicide attempters from suicide ideators using the Integrated Motivational–Volitional model of suicidal behaviour. Journal of Affective Disorders, 186, 211–218.

Dilillo, D., Mauri, S., Mantegazza, C., Fabiano, V., Mameli, C., & Zuccotti, G. V. (2015). Suicide in pediatrics: epidemiology, risk factors, warning signs and the role of the pediatrician in detecting them. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 41(1), 2- 8.

Dougherty, D. M., Mathias, C. W., Marsh-Richard, D. M., Prevette, K. N., Dawes, M. A., Hatzis, E. S., Palmes, G., & Nouvion, S. O. (2009). Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide. Psychiatry Research, 169(1), 22-27.

Esposito, G., Passeggia, R., Pepicelli, G., Cannata, A., Parlato, F., & Freda, M. F. (2020). Mentalizing the University experience: an exploratory study on the relationship between university students' reflective functioning, psychological well-being and academic performance. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2), 1-21.

Franklin, J. C., Ribeiro, J. D., Fox, K. R., Bentley, K. H., Kleiman, E. M., Huang, X., Musacchio, K. M., Jaroszewski, A. C., Chang, B. P., & Nock, M. K. (2017). Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analysis of 50 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 143(2), 187-232.

Fernández, E., Molerio, O., Grau, R., & Cruz, A. (2016). Afectividad negativa en estudiantes universitarios: un estudio exploratorio. Ansiedad y Estrés, 22(1), 26–32.

Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J. (2012). Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2- 18.

Fuller-Thomson, E., Baird, S. L., Dhrodia, R., & Brennenstuhl, S. (2016). The association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicide attempts in a population-based study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(5), 725–734.

Goldston, D. B., Erkanli, A., Daniel, S. S., Heilbron, N., Weller, B. E., & Doyle, O. (2016). Developmental Trajectories of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors From Adolescence Through Adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(5), 400–407.e1.

Gómez-Romero, M. J., Limonero, J. T., Toro, J., Montes, J., & Tomas, J. (2018). Relación entre inteligencia emocional, afecto negativo y riesgo suicida en jóvenes universitarios. Estrés y ansiedad, 24, 18-23. 1134-7937

Gómez, A. S., Núñez, C., Caballo, V. E., Agudelo, M. P., & Grisales, A. M. (2019). Predictores psicológicos del riesgo suicida en estudiantes universitarios. Behavioral Psychology / Psicología Conductual, 27 (3), 391-413.

Gómez, A. S., Núñez, C., Agudelo, M. P., & Grisales, A. M. (2020). Riesgo e Ideación Suicida y su Relación con la Impulsividad y la Depresión en Adolescentes Escolares. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación – e Avaliação Psicológica. RIDEP, 54 (1), 147- 163.

Gómez, C., Rodríguez, N., Bohórquez, A., Díazgranados, N., Ospina, M. B., & Fernández, C. (2002). Factores asociados al intento de suicidio en la población Colombiana. Revista colombiana de psiquiatría, 31(4), 271-283.

Gvion, Y. & Apter, A. (2011). Aggression, Impulsivity, and Suicide Behavior: A Review of the Literature. Archives of Suicide Research, 15(2), 93–112.

Hadzic, A., Spangenberg, L., Hallensleben, N., Forkmann, T., Rath, D., Strauß, M., Kersting, A., & Glaesmer, H. (2019). The association of trait impulsivity and suicidal ideation and its fluctuation in the context of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Comprehensive psychiatry, 98, 152158.

Hamza, C. A., Stewart, S. L., & Willoughby, T. (2012). Examining the link between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: A review of the literature and an integrated model. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 482–495.

Hart, S. R., Van Eck, K., Ballard, E. D., Musci, R. J., Newcomer, A., & Wilcox, H. C. (2017). Subtypes of suicide attempters based on longitudinal childhood profiles of co-occurring depressive, anxious and aggressive behavior symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 257, 150–155.

IBM Corporation (2017). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Versions 25.0 [Computer program]. Armonk, NY: IBM Corporation

IBM Corporation (2017). AMOS for Windows, Versions 24.0 [Computer program]. Armonk, NY: IBM Corporation

Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses (National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences [NILMFS]). (2019). Informe Forensis 2018. Datos para la vida. Bogotá: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses. Grupo Centro de Referencia Nacional sobre Violencia.

Joiner, T. E. (2005). Why People Die by Suicide. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.

Jordan, J. T., Samuelson, K. W., & Tiet, Q. Q. (2018). Impulsivity, Painful and Provocative Events, and Suicide Intent: Testing the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 49(4), 1187-1195.

Kasen, S., Cohen, P., & Chen, H. (2011). Developmental Course of Impulsivity and Capability from Age 10 to Age 25 as Related to Trajectory of Suicide Attempt in a Community Cohort. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(2), 180–192.

Klonsky, E., May, A. M., & Glenn, C. R. (2013). The relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide: Converging evidence from four samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(1), 231-237.

Koyanagi, A., Oh, H., Carvalho, A. F., Smith, L., Haro, J. M., Vancampfort, D., Stubbs, B., & DeVylder, J. E. (2019). Bullying Victimization and Suicide Attempt Among Adolescents Aged 12-15 Years From 48 Countries. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry., 58(9),907-918.

Lennon, J. C. (2019). Etiopathogenesis of Suicide: A Conceptual Analysis of Risk and Prevention Within a Comprehensive, Deterministic Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 10.

Lima, I. M. M., Malloy-Diniz, L. F., de Miranda, D. M., Da Silva, A. G., Neves, F. S., & Johnson, S. L. (2017). Integrative Understanding of Familial Impulsivity, Early Adversity and Suicide Risk. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 22-40.

Maddux, J. E., & Kleiman, E. M. (2016). Self-Efficacy: A Foundational Concept for Positive Clinical Psychology. In M. Wood., & J. Johnson, (Eds.). The Wiley Handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology (pp. 89-101). Wiley-Blackwell.

Maddux, J. E. (2016). Toward a More Positive Clinical Psychology. Deconstructing the Illness Ideology and Psychiatric Diagnosis. In M. Wood., & J. Johnson, (Eds.). The Wiley Handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology (pp. 19-30). Wiley-Blackwell.

Magán, I., Sanz, J., & García-Vera, M. R. (2008). Psychometric properties of a Spanish version of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in general population. The Spanish Journal of Psychology,11(2), 626-640.

May, A. M., & Klonsky, E. D. (2016). What Distinguishes Suicide Attempters From Suicide Ideators? A Meta-Analysis of Potential Factors. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 23(1), 5–20.

McMahon, E. M., Reulbach, U., Corcoran, P., Keeley, H. S., Perry, I. J., & Arensman, E. (2010). Factors associated with deliberate self-harm among Irish adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 40(11), 1811–1819.

Mars, B., Heron, J., Klonsky, E. D., Moran, P., O’Connor, R. C., Tilling, K., Wilkinson, P., & Gunnell, D. (2018). What distinguishes adolescents with suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide? A population-based birth cohort study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(1) 91-99.

McArdle, J. J., & Nesselroade, J. R. (2014). Basics of structural equation modeling. In J. J. McArdle & J. R. Nesselroade. Longitudinal data analysis using structural equation models (pp. 27-37). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association

Mann, J. J., Oquendo, M., Underwood, M. D., & Arango V. (1999). The neurobiology of suicide risk: a review for the clinician. Journal Clinical Psychiatry, 60(2), 7-11.

Martino, G., Langher, V., Cazzato, V., & Vicario, C. M. (2019). Psychological factors as determinants of medical conditions. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 2502.

Merlo, E. M. (2019). Opinion Article: The role of psychological features in chronic diseases, advancements and perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(3)1–6.

Merlo, E. M., Sicari, F., Frisone, F., Alibrandi, A., & Settineri, S. (2020a). Personality types and dreaming in future health professionals: Effect of age and gender. International Journal of Dream Research, 13 (2), 160-172.

Merlo, E. M., Stoian, A., Motofei, I. G., & Settineri, S. (2020b). Clinical Psychological Figures in Healthcare Professionals: Resilience and Maladjustment as the" Cost of Care". Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3166.

Miché, M., Hofer, P. D., Voss, C., Meyer, A. H., Gloster, A. T., Beesdo-Baum, K., & Lieb, R. (2018). Mental disorders and the risk for the subsequent first suicide attempt: results of a community study on adolescents and young adults. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(7), 839-848.

Mikulic I. M., Casullo, G. L., Crespi, M. C., & Marconi, A. (2009). Escala de Desesperanza BHS (A. Beck, 1974): estudio de las propiedades psicométricas y baremización de la adaptación argentina. Anuario de Investigaciones, 16, 365-373.

Mortier, P., Auerbach, R. P., Alonso, J., Bantjes, J., Benjet, C., Cuijpers, P., Ebert, D. D., Green, J., Hasking, P., Nock, M. K., O’Neill, S., Pinder-Amaker, S., Sampson, N. A., Vilagut, G., Zaslavsky, A. M., Bruffaerts, R., Kessler, R. C., & WHO WMH-ICS Collaborators. (2018). Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among First-Year College Students: Results From the WMH-ICS Project. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(4), 263–273.

Nelson, N. G., Dell'Oliver, C., Koch, C., & Buckler, R. (2001). Stress, coping, and success among graduate students in clinical psychology. Psychological Reports, 88(3), 759-767.

O’Beaglaoich, C., McCutcheon, J., Conway, P. F., Hanafin, J., & Morrison, T. G. (2020). Adolescent Suicide Ideation, Depression and Self-Esteem: Relationships to a New Measure of Gender Role Conflict. Frontiers in Psychology, 11,1-111.

O’Connor, R. C., Rasmussen, S., & Hawton, K. (2012). Distinguishing adolescents who think about self-harm from those who engage in self-harm. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(4), 330–335.

O’Connor, R. C., & Nock, M. K. (2014). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(1), 73–85.

World Health Organization. (2018). Suicide.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud. (2014). Mortalidad por suicidio en las Américas.

Oquendo, M. A., Galfalvy, H., Russo, S., Ellis, S., & Mann, J. J. (2004). Prospective Study of clinical predictors of suicidal acts after a major depressive episode in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Am Journal Psychiatry, 161(14), 33-41.

Orri, M., Galera, C., Turecki, G., Forte, A., Renaud, J., Boivin, M., Tremblay, R. E., Cote, S. M., & Geoffroy, M.C. (2018). Association of childhood irritability and depressive/anxious mood profiles with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(5), 465-473.

Park, S., & Jang, H. (2018). Correlations between suicide rates and the prevalence of suicide risk factors among Korean adolescents. Psychiatry Research, 261, 143-147.

Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768–764.;2-1

Pérez, A., Uribe, I., Vianchá, M., Bahamón, M., Verdugo, J., & Ochoa, S. (2013). Estilos parentales como predictores de ideación suicida en estudiantes adolescentes. Revista Psicología desde el Caribe, 30(3), 551-568.

Pintado, S. (2019). Changes in body awareness and self-compassion in clinical psychology trainees through a mindfulness program. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 34, 229-234.

Plutchik, R., & Van Praag, H. M. (1989). The measurement of suicidality, aggressivity and impulsivity. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 13, 23-24.

Ramlan, H., Shafri, N. I., Wahab, S., Kamarudin, M. A., Rajikan, R., Wahab, N. A. A., & Damanhuri, H. A. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Medical Students: An Early Observation Analysis. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2), 1–16.

Restrepo, J. E., Sánchez, O. A., Vallejo, G. C., Quirama, T. C., Sánchez, Y. O., & Cardona, P. D. (2018). Depresión y su relación con el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, el estrés académico y la ideación suicida en estudiantes universitarios colombianos. Health & Addictions/Salud y Drogas, 18(2). 227 -239.

Rubio, G., Montero, I., Jáuregui, J., Villanueva, R., Casado, M.A., Marín, J.J., & Santo-Domingo, J. (1998). Validación de la escala de riesgo suicida de Plutchik en población española. Arch Neurobiol, 61(2) ,143–52.

Rueda, G. E., Castro, V. A., Rangel, A. M., Moreno, C., Martínez, G. A., & Camacho, P. A. (2018). Validación de la Escala de Desesperanza de Beck en pacientes con riesgo suicida. Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, 11(2), 86–93.

Russell, K., Allan, S., Beattie, L., Bohan, J., MacMahon, K., & Rasmussen, S. (2019). Sleep problem, suicide and self-harm in university students: A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 44, 58-69.

Santos, H. G. B, Marcon, S. R., Espinosa, M. M., Baptista, M. N., & Paulo, P. M. C. D. (2017). Factors associated with suicidal ideation among university students. Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem, 25, e2878.

Sanz, J., García-Vera, M. P., & Fortún, M. (2012). El “Inventario de ansiedad de Beck” (BAI): propiedades psicométricas de la versión española en pacientes con trastornos psicológicos. Behavioral Psychology-Psicología Conductual, 20, 563-583.

Sanz, J., Gutiérrez, S., Gesteira, C., & García-Vera, M. P. (2014). Criterios y baremos para interpretar el “Inventario de depresión de Beck-II” (BDI-II). Behavioral Psychology / Psicología Conductual, 22 (1), 37-59.

Sanz, J., & Navarro, M. E. (2003). Propiedades psicométricas de una versión española del Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI) en estudiantes universitarios. Ansiedad y Estrés, 9, 59-84.

Settineri, S., Frisone, F., Alibrandi, A., Pino, G., Lupo, N. J., & Merlo, E. M. (2018). Psychological Types and Learning Styles. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6(3),1-22.

Shin, L. J., & Lyubomirsky, S. 2016). Positive Activity Interventions for Mental Health Conditions: Basic Research and Clinical Applications. In M. Wood., & J. Johnson, (Eds.). The Wiley Handbook of Positive Clinical Psychology (pp. 349-364). Wiley-Blackwell.

Schneidman, E. S. (1981). A psychological theory of suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 11(4), 221–231.

Siabato, E., & Salamanca, Y. (2015). Factores asociados a ideación suicida en universitarios. Psychologia: avances de la disciplina, 9(1), 71-81.

Siabato, E., Forero, I. X., & Salamanca, Y. (2017). Asociación entre depresión e ideación suicida en un grupo de adolescentes colombianos. Pensamiento Psicológico, 15(1), 51-61.

Sorrenti, L., Spadaro, L., Mafodda, A. V., Scopelliti, G., Orecchio, S., & Filippello, P. (2019). The predicting role of school Learned helplessness in internalizing and externalizing problems. An exploratory study in students with Specific Learning Disorder. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(2), 1–14.

Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., & Patton, J. H. (2009). Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(5), 385–395.

Van Orden, K. A., Witte, T. K., Cukrowicz, K. C., Braithwaite, S. R., Selby, E. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2010). The interpersonal theory of suicide. Psychological Review, 117(2), 575–600.

Wang, Y., Jiang, N., Cheung, E. F. C., Sun, H., & Chan, R. C. K. (2015). Role of depression severity and impulsivity in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 183, 83–89.

Watkins, H. B., & Meyer, T. D. (2013). Is there an empirical link between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorders? A review of the current literature and the potential psychological implications of the relationship. Bipolar Disord, 15, 542–558.

Wilcox, H. C., Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., Pinchevsky, G. M., & O'Grady, K. E. (2010). Prevalence and predictors of persistent suicide ideation, plans, and attempts during college. Journal of Affective Disorders, 127(1-3), 287–294.

Wilkinson, P., Kelvin, R., Roberts, C., Dubicka, B., & Goodyer, I. (2011). Clinical and psychosocial predictors of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury in the Adolescent Depression Antidepressants and Psychotherapy Trial (ADAPT). American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(5), 495-501.

Zouk, H., Tousignant, M., Seguin, M., Lesage, A., & Turecki, G. (2006). Characterization of impulsivity in suicide completers: Clinical, behavioral and psychosocial dimensions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(2-3), 195–204.



  • There are currently no refbacks.