Psychological impact and patient perception of occlusion and orthodontic treatment in periodontitis patients

Simona Santonocito, Vincenzo Ronsivalle, Grazia Fichera, Francesco Indelicato


Background: This study analyzed, in patients with periodontitis, the impact of the degree of self-perceived malocclusion, the experienced negative psychosocial impact of periodontitis, and the history and timing of orthodontic treatment.

Methods: For the study were enrolled 54 patients undergoing a routine dental health visit. They answered the Negative Impact of Dental Aesthetics Scale (NIDAS), the Perception of Occlusion Scale (POS). Moreover, undergoes to the Approximal Plaque Index (API), the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and the number of decayed teeth (DT) and missing teeth (MT). All data were analyzed using different statistical procedures.

Results: The subjects ranging within the upper POS quartile scored higher on the GBI (contrast: P= 0.037) and DT (P= 0.028) than did those in the lower POS quartiles. Different to the patients who had minor negative impacts in the NIDAS, those with strong impacts had higher scores on the API (P<005). Compared to patients without previous orthodontic treatment, those with a history of orthodontic treatment lasting 24 months had a lower API (P <0.05), GBI and DT (each P = 0.008) scores.

Conclusion: The present results suggest that self-perceived dental irregularity and the negative impact of periodontitis might affect oral health, whereas previous extensive orthodontic treatment may have favourable effects by improving dental health compliance.


Periodontitis; Orthodontic treatment; Quality of life questionnaire; Clinical trial.

Full Text:



Al-Asfour, A., Waheedi, M., & Koshy, S. (2018). Survey of patient experiences of orthognathic surgery: health-related quality of life and satisfaction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 47(6), 726-731. 10.1016/j.ijom.2017.12.010

Ashley, F. P., Usiskin, L. A., Wilson, R. F., & Wagaiyu, E. (1998). The relationship between irregularity of the incisor teeth, plaque, and gingivitis: a study in a group of schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. Eur J Orthod, 20(1), 65-72. 10.1093/ejo/20.1.65

Benrud-Larson, L. M., Heinberg, L. J., Boling, C., Reed, J., White, B., Wigley, F. M., & Haythornthwaite, J. A. (2003). Body image dissatisfaction among women with scleroderma: extent and relationship to psychosocial function. Health Psychology, 22(2), 130.

Ben-Tovim, D. I., & Walker, M. K. (1995). Body image, disfigurement and disability. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(3), 283-291.

Bos, A., Hoogstraten, J., & Prahl-Andersen, B. (2003). Expectations of treatment and satisfaction with dentofacial appearance in orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 123(2), 127-132. 10.1067/mod.2003.84

Briguglio, F., Briguglio, E., Briguglio, R., Cafiero, C., & Isola, G. (2013). Treatment of infrabony periodontal defects using a resorbable biopolymer of hyaluronic acid: a randomized clinical trial. Quintessence Int, 44(3), 231-240. 10.3290/j.qi.a29054

Brooks, A. J., Norman, P., Peach, E. J., Ryder, A., Scott, A. J., Narula, P., ... & Rowse, G. (2019). Prospective study of psychological morbidity and illness perceptions in young people with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, 13(8), 1003-1011.

Cannavale, R., Matarese, G., Isola, G., Grassia, V., & Perillo, L. (2013). Early treatment of an ectopic premolar to prevent molar-premolar transposition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 143(4), 559-569. 10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.03.035

Caputo A. (2013). Health demand in primary care context: what do people think about physicians? Psychol. Health Med. 18, 145–154.

Caputo, A. (2019). Psychodynamic insights from narratives of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A qualitative phenomenological study. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(2).

Cavuoti, S., Matarese, G., Isola, G., Abdolreza, J., Femiano, F., & Perillo, L. (2016). Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine. Angle Orthod, 86(4), 681-691. 10.2319/050615-309.1

Conversano, C. (2019). Psychological common factors in chronic diseases. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2727.

Curro, M., Matarese, G., Isola, G., Caccamo, D., Ventura, V. P., Cornelius, C., . . . Ientile, R. (2014). Differential expression of transglutaminase genes in patients with chronic periodontitis. Oral Dis, 20(6), 616-623. 10.1111/odi.12180

Cutroneo, G., Piancino, M. G., Ramieri, G., Bracco, P., Vita, G., Isola, G., . . . Trimarchi, F. (2012). Expression of muscle-specific integrins in masseter muscle fibers during malocclusion disease. Int J Mol Med, 30(2), 235-242. 10.3892/ijmm.2012.986

Di Giuseppe, M., Ciacchini, R., Micheloni, T., Bertolucci, I., Marchi, L., & Conversano, C. (2018). Defense mechanisms in cancer patients: A systematic review. Journal of psychosomatic research, 115, 76-86.

Di Giuseppe, M., Di Silvestre, A., Lo Sterzo, R., Hitchcott, P., Gemignani, A., & Conversano, C. (2019). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the defensive profile in breast cancer women: A pilot study. Health psychology open, 6(1), 2055102919854667.

Di Giuseppe, M., Miniati, M., Miccoli, M., Ciacchini, R., Orrù, G., Sterzo, R. L., ... & Conversano, C. (2020). Defensive responses to stressful life events associated with cancer diagnosis. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(1).

Erkic, M., Bailer, J., Fenske, S. C., Schmidt, S. N., Trojan, J., Schröder, A., ... & Mier, D. (2018). Impaired emotion processing and a reduction in trust in patients with somatic symptom disorder. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 25(1), 163-172.

Espeland, L. V., & Stenvik, A. (1991). Perception of personal dental appearance in young adults: relationship between occlusion, awareness, and satisfaction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 100(3), 234-241. 10.1016/0889-5406(91)70060-a

Ferlazzo, N., Curro, M., Zinellu, A., Caccamo, D., Isola, G., Ventura, V., . . . Ientile, R. (2017). Influence of MTHFR Genetic Background on p16 and MGMT Methylation in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer. Int J Mol Sci, 18(4). 10.3390/ijms18040724

Finkenberg, M. E., DiNucci, J. M., McCune, S. L., Chenette, T., & McCoy, P. (1998). Commitment to physical activity and anxiety about physique among college women. Percept Mot Skills, 87(3 Pt 2), 1393-1394. 10.2466/pms.1998.87.3f.1393

Gangemi, A., Caprì, T., Fabio, R. A., Puggioni, P., Falzone, A. M., & Martino, G. (2018). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tdcs) and cognitive empowerment for the functional recovery of diseases with chronic impairment and genetic etiopathogenesis. Adv. Genet. Res, 18, 179-196.

Gugliandolo, M. C., Costa, S., Cuzzocrea, F., Larcan, R., & Martino, G. (2020). Adolescents and Body Uneasiness: the Contribution of Supportive Parenting and Trait Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29(9), 2453-2462.

Isiekwe, G. I., Sofola, O. O., Onigbogi, O. O., Utomi, I. L., Sanu, O. O., & daCosta, O. O. (2016). Dental esthetics and oral health-related quality of life in young adults. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 150(4), 627-636. 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.03.025

Isola, G., Alibrandi, A., Curro, M., Matarese, M., Ricca, S., Matarese, G., . . . Kocher, T. (2020a). Evaluation of salivary and serum ADMA levels in patients with periodontal and cardiovascular disease as subclinical marker of cardiovascular risk. J Periodontol, 91(8), 1076-1084. 10.1002/JPER.19-0446

Isola, G., Alibrandi, A., Rapisarda, E., Matarese, G., Williams, R. C., & Leonardi, R. (2020b). Association of vitamin D in patients with periodontitis: A cross-sectional study. J Periodontal Res, 55(5), 602-612. 10.1111/jre.12746

Isola, G., Anastasi, G. P., Matarese, G., Williams, R. C., Cutroneo, G., Bracco, P., & Piancino, M. G. (2018a). Functional and molecular outcomes of the human masticatory muscles. Oral Dis, 24(8), 1428-1441. 10.1111/odi.12806

Isola, G., Giudice, A. L., Polizzi, A., Alibrandi, A., Patini, R., & Ferlito, S. (2019a). Periodontitis and Tooth Loss Have Negative Systemic Impact on Circulating Progenitor Cell Levels: A Clinical Study. Genes (Basel), 10(12).

Isola, G., Matarese, G., Cordasco, G., Perillo, L., & Ramaglia, L. (2016). Mechanobiology of the tooth movement during the orthodontic treatment: a literature review. Minerva Stomatol, 65(5), 299-327.

Isola, G., Matarese, G., Cordasco, G., Rotondo, F., Crupi, A., & Ramaglia, L. (2015). Anticoagulant therapy in patients undergoing dental interventions: a critical review of the literature and current perspectives. Minerva Stomatol, 64(1), 21-46.

Isola, G., Matarese, G., Ramaglia, L., Pedulla, E., Rapisarda, E., & Iorio-Siciliano, V. (2020c). Association between periodontitis and glycosylated haemoglobin before diabetes onset: a cross-sectional study. Clin Oral Investig, 24(8), 2799-2808. 10.1007/s00784-019-03143-0

Isola, G., Matarese, G., Williams, R. C., Siciliano, V. I., Alibrandi, A., Cordasco, G., & Ramaglia, L. (2018b). The effects of a desiccant agent in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig, 22(2), 791-800. 10.1007/s00784-017-2154-7

Isola, G., Matarese, M., Briguglio, F., Grassia, V., Picciolo, G., Fiorillo, L., & Matarese, G. (2019b). Effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy during Tooth Movement: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Materials (Basel), 12(13).

Isola, G., Matarese, M., Ramaglia, L., Cicciu, M., & Matarese, G. (2019c). Evaluation of the efficacy of celecoxib and ibuprofen on postoperative pain, swelling, and mouth opening after surgical removal of impacted third molars: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 48(10), 1348-1354. 10.1016/j.ijom.2019.02.006

Isola, G., Matarese, M., Ramaglia, L., Iorio-Siciliano, V., Cordasco, G., & Matarese, G. (2019d). Efficacy of a drug composed of herbal extracts on postoperative discomfort after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar: a randomized, triple-blind, controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig, 23(5), 2443-2453. 10.1007/s00784-018-2690-9

Isola, G., Perillo, L., Migliorati, M., Matarese, M., Dalessandri, D., Grassia, V., . . . Matarese, G. (2019e). The impact of temporomandibular joint arthritis on functional disability and global health in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Eur J Orthod, 41(2), 117-124. 10.1093/ejo/cjy034

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Alibrandi, A., Indelicato, F., & Ferlito, S. (2020d). Analysis of Endothelin-1 Concentrations in Individuals with Periodontitis. Sci Rep, 10(1), 1652.

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Alibrandi, A., Williams, R. C., & Leonardi, R. (2020e). Independent impact of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease on elevated soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels. J Periodontol. 10.1002/JPER.20-0242

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Iorio-Siciliano, V., Alibrandi, A., Ramaglia, L., & Leonardi, R. (2020f). Effectiveness of a nutraceutical agent in the non-surgical periodontal therapy: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 10.1007/s00784-020-03397-z

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Muraglie, S., Leonardi, R., & Lo Giudice, A. (2019f). Assessment of Vitamin C and Antioxidant Profiles in Saliva and Serum in Patients with Periodontitis and Ischemic Heart Disease. Nutrients, 11(12).

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Patini, R., Ferlito, S., Alibrandi, A., & Palazzo, G. (2020g). Association among serum and salivary A. actinomycetemcomitans specific immunoglobulin antibodies and periodontitis. BMC Oral Health, 20(1), 283. 10.1186/s12903-020-01258-5

Isola, G., Polizzi, A., Santonocito, S., Alibrandi, A., & Ferlito, S. (2019g). Expression of Salivary and Serum Malondialdehyde and Lipid Profile of Patients with Periodontitis and Coronary Heart Disease. Int J Mol Sci, 20(23).

Jordan, C., Sin, J., Fear, N. T., & Chalder, T. (2016). A systematic review of the psychological correlates of adjustment outcomes in adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 28-40.

Kiebles, J. L., Doerfler, B., & Keefer, L. (2010). Preliminary evidence supporting a framework of psychological adjustment to inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases, 16(10), 1685-1695.

Leonardi, R. M., Aboulazm, K., Giudice, A. L., Ronsivalle, V., D'Anto, V., Lagravere, M., & Isola, G. (2020). Evaluation of mandibular changes after rapid maxillary expansion: a CBCT study in youngsters with unilateral posterior crossbite using a surface-to-surface matching technique. Clin Oral Investig. 10.1007/s00784-020-03480-5

Leonardi, R., Almeida, L. E., Trevilatto, P. C., & Loreto, C. (2010). Occurrence and regional distribution of TRAIL and DR5 on temporomandibular joint discs: comparison of disc derangement with and without reduction. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod, 109(2), 244-251. 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.09.028

Leonardi, R., Farella, M., & Cobourne, M. T. (2011). An association between sella turcica bridging and dental transposition. Eur J Orthod, 33(4), 461-465. 10.1093/ejo/cjq106

Leonardi, R., Loreto, C., Talic, N., Caltabiano, R., & Musumeci, G. (2012). Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement. Acta Histochem, 114(7), 700-704. 10.1016/j.acthis.2011.12.005

Lo Giudice, A., Leonardi, R., Ronsivalle, V., Allegrini, S., Lagravere, M., Marzo, G., & Isola, G. (2020a). Evaluation of pulp cavity/chamber changes after tooth-borne and bone-borne rapid maxillary expansions: a CBCT study using surface-based superimposition and deviation analysis. Clin Oral Investig. 10.1007/s00784-020-03539-3

Lo Giudice, A., Ortensi, L., Farronato, M., Lucchese, A., Lo Castro, E., & Isola, G. (2020b). The step further smile virtual planning: milled versus prototyped mock-ups for the evaluation of the designed smile characteristics. BMC Oral Health, 20(1). 10.1186/s12903-020-01145-z

Lo Giudice, A., Ronsivalle, V., Grippaudo, C., Lucchese, A., Muraglie, S., Lagravere, M. O., & Isola, G. (2020c). One Step before 3D Printing-Evaluation of Imaging Software Accuracy for 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Mandible: A Comparative Study Using a Surface-to-Surface Matching Technique. Materials, 13(12). 10.3390/ma13122798

Lo Giudice, A., Ronsivalle, V., Lagravere, M., Leonardi, R., Martina, S., & Isola, G. (2020d). Transverse dentoalveolar response of mandibular arch after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with tooth-borne and bone-borne appliances: A CBCT retrospective study. Angle Orthodontist, 90(5), 680-687. 10.2319/042520-353.1

Lo Giudice, A., Rustico, L., Caprioglio, A., Migliorati, M., & Nucera, R. (2020e). Evaluation of condylar cortical bone thickness in patient groups with different vertical facial dimensions using cone-beam computed tomography. Odontology, 108(4), 669-675. 10.1007/s10266-020-00510-2

Lo Muzio, L., Campisi, G., Farina, A., Rubini, C., Pastore, L., Giannone, N., . . . Carinci, F. (2007). Effect of p63 expression on survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Invest, 25(6), 464-469. 10.1080/07357900701509387

Loreto, C., Almeida, L. E., Trevilatto, P., & Leonardi, R. (2011). Apoptosis in displaced temporomandibular joint disc with and without reduction: an immunohistochemical study. J Oral Pathol Med, 40(1), 103-110. 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2010.00920.x

Loreto, C., Chiarenza, G. P., Musumeci, G., Castrogiovanni, P., Imbesi, R., Ruggeri, A., . . . Leonardi, R. (2016). ADAM10 localization in temporomandibular joint disk with internal derangement: an ex vivo immunohistochemical study. Acta Histochem, 118(3), 293-298. 10.1016/j.acthis.2016.02.006

Mariotti, A. (1999). Dental plaque-induced gingival diseases. Ann Periodontol, 4(1), 7-19. 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.7

Martino, G., Catalano, A., Agostino, R. M., Bellone, F., Morabito, N., Lasco, C. G., ... & Feldt-Rasmussen, U. (2020a). Quality of life and psychological functioning in postmenopausal women undergoing aromatase inhibitor treatment for early breast cancer. PloS one, 15(3), e0230681.

Martino, G., Caputo, A., Bellone, F., Quattropani, M. C., & Vicario, C. M. (2020b). Going Beyond the Visible in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Defense Mechanisms and their Associations with Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 267.

Martino, G., Caputo, A., Schwarz, P., Bellone, F., Fries, W., Quattropani, M. C., & Vicario, C. M. (2020c). Alexithymia and inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Matarese, G., Curro, M., Isola, G., Caccamo, D., Vecchio, M., Giunta, M. L., . . . Ientile, R. (2015). Transglutaminase 2 up-regulation is associated with RANKL/OPG pathway in cultured HPDL cells and THP-1-differentiated macrophages. Amino Acids, 47(11), 2447-2455. 10.1007/s00726-015-2039-5

Matarese, G., Isola, G., Alibrandi, A., Lo Gullo, A., Bagnato, G., Cordasco, G., & Perillo, L. (2016). Occlusal and MRI characterizations in systemic sclerosis patients: A prospective study from Southern Italian cohort. Joint Bone Spine, 83(1), 57-62. 10.1016/j.jbspin.2015.04.014

Matarese, G., Isola, G., Anastasi, G. P., Cutroneo, G., Cordasco, G., Favaloro, A., . . . Perillo, L. (2013). Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in the Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease. European Journal of Inflammation, 11(2), 479-488. 10.1177/1721727x1301100217

Matarese, G., Isola, G., Anastasi, G. P., Favaloro, A., Milardi, D., Vermiglio, G., . . . Cutroneo, G. (2012). Immunohistochemical analysis of TGF-beta1 and VEGF in gingival and periodontal tissues: a role of these biomarkers in the pathogenesis of scleroderma and periodontal disease. Int J Mol Med, 30(3), 502-508. 10.3892/ijmm.2012.1024

McCaul, K. D., Glasgow, R. E., & O'Neill, H. K. (1992). The problem of creating habits: establishing health-protective dental behaviors. Health Psychol, 11(2), 101-110. 10.1037//0278-6133.11.2.101

McDermott, E., Mullen, G., Moloney, J., Keegan, D., Byrne, K., Doherty, G. A., ... & Mulcahy, H. E. (2015). Body image dissatisfaction: clinical features, and psychosocial disability in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 21(2), 353-360.

Mercuri, E., Cassetta, M., Cavallini, C., Vicari, D., Leonardi, R., & Barbato, E. (2013). Dental anomalies and clinical features in patients with maxillary canine impaction. Angle Orthod, 83(1), 22-28. 10.2319/021712-149.1

Merlo, E. M. (2019a). Adolescent phobia as a "mask object". Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(1).

Merlo, E. M. (2019b). Opinion Article: The role of psychological features in chronic diseases, advancements and perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(3).

Merlo, E. M., Sicari, F., Frisone, F., Alibrandi, A., & Settineri, S. . (2020a). Personality types and dreaming in future health professionals: Effect of age and gender. International Journal of Dream Research, 160-172.

Merlo, E. M., Stoian, A., Motofei, I. G., & Settineri, S. (2020b). Clinical Psychological Figures in Healthcare Professionals: Resilience and Maladjustment as the" Cost of Care". Frontiers in Psychology, 11(4), 3166.

Molodecky, N. A., Soon, S., Rabi, D. M., Ghali, W. A., Ferris, M., Chernoff, G., ... & Kaplan, G. G. (2012). Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review. Gastroenterology, 142(1), 46-54.

Ni, J., Song, S., & Zhou, N. (2019) Impact of surgical orthodontic treatment on quality of life in Chinese young adults with class III malocclusion: a longitudinal study. BMC Oral Health, 19(1):109.

O'Donnell, K. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2020). Epigenetics, development, and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 16, 327-350.

Perillo, L., Isola, G., Esercizio, D., Iovane, M., Triolo, G., & Matarese, G. (2013). Differences in craniofacial characteristics in Southern Italian children from Naples: a retrospective study by cephalometric analysis. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 14(3), 195-198.

Perillo, L., Padricelli, G., Isola, G., Femiano, F., Chiodini, P., & Matarese, G. (2012). Class II malocclusion division 1: a new classification method by cephalometric analysis. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 13(3), 192-196.

Piancino, M. G., Isola, G., Cannavale, R., Cutroneo, G., Vermiglio, G., Bracco, P., & Anastasi, G. P. (2017). From periodontal mechanoreceptors to chewing motor control: A systematic review. Arch Oral Biol, 78, 109-121. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2017.02.010

Piancino, M. G., Isola, G., Merlo, A., Dalessandri, D., Debernardi, C., & Bracco, P. (2012). Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 22(2), 273-279. 10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.12.003

Rosa, V., Tomai, M., Lauriola, M., & Martino, G. (2019). Body mass index, personality traits, and body image in Italian pre-adolescents: An opportunity for overweight prevention. psihologija, 52(4), 379-393. :

Settineri, S., Frisone, F., & Merlo, E. M. (2019a). The Mask object in psychotherapy: Presentation and Representation. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 7(1).

Settineri, S., Frisone, F., Alibrandi, A., & Merlo, E. M. (2019b). Emotional Suppression and Oneiric Expression in Psychosomatic Disorders: Early Manifestations in Emerging Adulthood and Young Patients. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01897

Settineri, S., Frisone, F., Alibrandi, A., Pino, G., Lupo, N. J., & Merlo, E. M. (2018). Psychological Types and Learning Styles in Medical Education. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6(3). 10.6092/2282-1619/2018.6.2005

Shahar, G. (2020). Interdisciplinarity and Integration: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychopathology in Medical Settings. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 1-5.

Shaw, W. C., O'Brien, K. D., Richmond, S., & Brook, P. (1991). Quality control in orthodontics: risk/benefit considerations. Br Dent J, 170(1), 33-37. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4807399

Skaret, E., Raadal, M., Berg, E., & Kvale, G. (1999). Dental anxiety and dental avoidance among 12 to 18 year olds in Norway. Eur J Oral Sci, 107(6), 422-428. 10.1046/j.0909-8836.1999.eos107602.x

Smith, A. L. (2004). Measurement of social physique anxiety in early adolescence. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(3), 475-483. 10.1249/

Southard, T. E., Cohen, M. E., Ralls, S. A., & Rouse, L. A. (1986). Effects of fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment on DMF indices. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 90(2), 122-126. 10.1016/0889-5406(86)90043-0

Thombs, B. D., Lawrence, J. W., Magyar-Russell, G., Bresnick, M. G., & Fauerbach, J. A. (2008). From survival to socialization: a longitudinal study of body image in survivors of severe burn injury. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(2), 205-212.

van de Pavert, I., Sunderland, M., Luijten, M., Slade, T., & Teesson, M. (2017). The general relationship between internalizing psychopathology and chronic physical health conditions: a population-based study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 52(10), 1257-1265.

Van Houtum, L., Rijken, M., & Groenewegen, P. (2015). Do everyday problems of people with chronic illness interfere with their disease management?. BMC public health, 15(1), 1000.

Vita, R., Caputo, A., Quattropani, M. C., Watt, T., Feldt-Rasmussen, U., Puleio, P., ... & Martino, G. (2020). Quality of Life in Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Where do we stand?. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2).



  • There are currently no refbacks.