Understanding the characteristics of prolonged social withdrawal (hikikomori)

Simone Amendola, Rita Cerutti


Mental and public health professionals have paid increasing attention to the hikikomori phenomenon.

With this letter, we aim to extend scientific knowledge on the characteristics of hikikomori and pre-hikikomori as reported by Italian participants using previously unpublished data.

Presented findings suggest that stressful events and difficulties in interpersonal relationships and in adjusting to the increasing life-phase-related social demands may exert a prominent role in leading to hikikomori.


Social withdrawal; Social isolation; Social avoidance; Social distance; Hidden youth.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3573


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