Lockdown Young Adult Concerns Scale (LYACS): The Development and Validation Process

Giorgio Maria Regnoli, Gioia Tiano, Massimiliano Sommantico, Barbara De Rosa


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic as well as the social, relational, and economic transformations of the lockdown had a strong traumatic impact on the mental health of the word population, even more so on specific targets such as young adults. The spread of what was an unknown virus and the lockdown experience have raised concerns for the preservation of people’s physical and mental health and their private, relational, and work life.

Objectives: The current study presents the construction, development, and validation process of the Lockdown Young Adult Concerns Scale (LYACS), an instrument assessing the level of two principal concerns during the pandemic lockdown, i.e., Loss of Life Control (CLLC) and Infection/Contagion (CIF).

Methods: After a pilot study that defined the dimensions, selected the items, and carried out Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on a sample of 100 subjects (M = 24; DS = 3.9), a new sample of 259 Italian young adults (ages 18-35 yrs.; M = 24; SD = 3.8) was used to assess the psychometric validity of LYACS through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), reliability, convergent and divergent validity. Further descriptive analyses of the final version of scale as well as Two-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) on selected sociodemographic variables were conducted.

Results: The outcome of Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which resulted in high goodness of fit (χ2/df = 2.0; GFI = .98; TLI = .98; RMSEA = .06; SRMR = .04), supports two identifiable factors reflecting the theoretically-based constructs of LYACS, thus supporting the EFA results. Furthermore, internal consistency as well as convergent and divergent validity analyses allow the scale to be considered a reliable and valid instrument for the present investigation. Finally, variance analysis shows that there are significant differences among the factor levels regarding gender, occupation, perception of the home space during lockdown, and having/not having worked on Concern about Loss of Life Control (CLLC), and between gender and confinement cohabitation on Concern about Infection/Contagion (CIF).

Conclusion: Overall, the reported results show good psychometric proprieties for the scale and shed new light on how Italian young adults lived the COVID-19 pandemic.


Young Adults; COVID-19; Scale Validation; Concerns about Loss of Life Control and Infection/contagion; Clinical Psychology.

Full Text:



Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20, 1537–1545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8.

Aleni Sestito, L., & Sica, S. (2016). Dopo l’infanzia e l’adolescenza. Lo sviluppo psicologico negli anni della transizione verso l’età adulta [After childhood and adolescence. Psychological development in the years of transition to adulthood]. Parma: Gruppo Spaggiari.

Arbuckle, J.L. (2019). Amos (Version 26.0). Chicago: IBM SPSS

Arnett, J.J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199795574.013.9

Asmundson, G.J.G., & Taylor, S. (2020). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 71, 102211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102196

Bagozzi, R., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 16, 74-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02723327

Balsamo, M., & Carlucci, L. (2020). Italians on the age of COVID-19: the self-reported depressive symptoms through web-based survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 569276.


Benedetto, L., Vicentino, C., Merulla, C., & Ingrassia, M. (2022). Perduring COVID-19 pandemic, perceived well-being, and non-suicidal self-injury behaviors (NSSI) in emerging adults. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3267

Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246.


Biondi, M., & Iannitelli, A. (2020). CoViD-19 and stress in the pandemic:“sanity is not statistical”. Rivista di Psichiatria, 55(3), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1708/3382.33568

Borkovec, T.D., Robinson, E., Pruzinsky, T., & DePree, J.A. (1983). Preliminary exploration of worry: Some characteristics and processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21(1), 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(83)90121-3

Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G.J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395, 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng., J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287,112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934

Cellini, N., Canale, N., Mioni, G., & Costa, S. (2020). Changes in sleep pattern, sense of time and digital media use during COVID‐19 lockdown in Italy. Journal of Sleep Research, 29(4), e13074. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13074

Charles, N.E., Strong, S.J., Burns, L.C., Bullerjahn, M.R., & Serafine, K.M. (2021). Increased mood disorder symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research, 296, 113706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113706

Chicchi, F. (2021). Sintomatologia della società della prestazione. Lavoro e soggettività nel capitalismo contemporaneo [Symptomatology of the performance society. Labor and subjectivity in contemporary capitalism]. In B. De Rosa (a cura di), Forme del malessere nell’orizzonte contemporaneo [Forms of malaise in the contemporary horizon] (pp. 71-81). Roma: Alpes Italia.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York, NY: Routledge Academic.

Commodari, E., La Rosa, V. L., Carnemolla, G., & Parisi, J. (2021). The psychological impact of the lockdown on Italian university students during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic: psychological experiences, health risk perceptions, distance learning, and future perspectives. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3009

Côté, J., & Bynner, J.M. (2008). Changes in the transition to adulthood in the UK and Canada: The role of structure and agency in emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(3), 251-268. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260801946464

Cronbach, L.J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040957

De Rosa, B. (2021). L’incompiuto, l’umano e la crisi della relazione asimmetrica. Per un’introduzione impossibile [The unfinished, the human and the crisis of the asymmetrical relationship. For an impossible introduction]. In B. De Rosa (a cura di), Forme del malessere nell’orizzonte contemporaneo [Forms of malaise in the contemporary horizon] (pp. VII-XX). Roma: Alpes Italia.

De Rosa, B., Colella, G., Palombo, P., Perla, V., & Regnoli, G.M. (2021a) Voice to youths: the development of the YAPEQS (Young Adult’s Pandemic Experience Quality). XXII National Congress Italian Psychological Association Clinical and Dynamic Section, Università degli Studi di Lecce.

De Rosa, B., Palombo, P., Perla, V., & Regnoli, G.M. (2021b). Voice to youths: a qualitative study on pandemic experience in young adults. XXII National Congress Italian Psychological Association Clinical and Dynamic Section, Università degli Studi di Lecce.

De Rosa, B., & Regnoli, G.M. (2022). La pandemia da COVID-19, un potenziale trauma collettivo [The COVID-19 pandemic, a potential collective trauma]. TOPIC-Temi di Psicologia dell'Ordine degli Psicologi della Campania, 1(2), 10-53240. https://doi.org/10.53240/topic002.05

Delli Zotti, G., Urpis, O., & Blasutig, G. (2020). I giovani: atteggiamenti, comportamenti e visioni del futuro [Young people: attitudes, behaviors and visions of the future]. Torino: L’Harmattan Italia.

Di Giuseppe, M., Zilcha-Mano, S., Prout, T. A., Perry, J. C., Orrù, G., & Conversano, C. (2020). Psychological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 among Italians during the first week of lockdown. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, 576597. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.576597

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Germani, A., Buratta, L., Delvecchio, E., & Mazzeschi, C. (2020). Emerging adults and COVID-19: The role of individualism-collectivism on perceived risks and psychological maladjustment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3497. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103497

Gori, A., Topino, E., Craparo, G., Grotto, R. L., & Caretti, V. (2021). An empirical model for understanding the threat responses at the time of COVID-19. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.6092/2282-1619/mjcp-2916

Guidetti, G., Converso, D., Sanseverino, D., & Ghislieri, C. (2022). Return to Work during the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Study on the Role of Job Demands, Job Resources, and Personal Resources upon the Administrative Staff of Italian Public Universities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(4), 1995. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19041995

Guttman, L. (1954). A new approach to factor analysis: the Radex. In P. F. Lazarsfeld (Ed.), Mathematical thinking in the social sciences (pp. 258–348). Free Press.

Haig-Ferguson, A., Cooper, K., Cartwright, E., Loades, M.E., & Daniels, J. (2020). Practitioner review: Health anxiety in children and young people in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 49, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465820000636

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J. and Anderson, R.E. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edition. New York: Pearson.

Harper, C.A., Satchell, L.P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R.D. (2021). Functional fear predicts public health compliance in the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(5), 1875-1888.


Hendry, L.B., & Kloep, M. (2010). How universal is emerging adulthood? An empirical example. Journal of Youth Studies, 13(2), 169-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676260903295067

Hewson, C., Vogel, C., & Laurent, D. (Eds.). (2016). Internet research methods (2nd ed.). London, UK: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781473920804

Holaway, R.M., Rodebaugh, T.L., & Heimberg, R.G. (2006). The epidemiology of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. In G.C.L. Davey & A. Wells (Eds.), Worry and its psychological disorders: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 3–20). New York: Wiley.

Horesh, D., & Brown, A.D. (2020). Traumatic stress in the age of COVID-19: A call to close critical gaps and adapt to new realities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(4), 331. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000592

Hoyt, L.T., Cohen, A.K., Dull, B., Castro, E.M., & Yazdani, N. (2021). Constant stress has become the new normal: stress and anxiety inequalities among US college students in the time of COVID-19. Journal of Adolescent Health, 68(2), 270-276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.10.030

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoffcriteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A MultidisciplinaryJjournal, 6(1), 1-55.https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1080/10705519909540118

Kaës, R. (2012). Le Malêtre [The Malaise]. Paris: Dunod. https://doi.org/10.3917/dunod.kaes.2012.01

Kaës, R. (2014). Di quali risorse dispone la psicoanalisi di fronte al malessere contemporaneo [What resources psychoanalysis has in the face of contemporary malaise]. Atti del Seminario di Studi Internazionale La psicoanalisi alla prova del malessere contemporaneo [Psychoanalysis to the test of contemporary malaise] Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II.

Kline, R.B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford publications.

Knowles, K.A., & Olatunji, B.O. (2021). Anxiety and safety behavior usage during the COVID-19 pandemic: The prospective role of contamination fear. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 77, 102323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102323

Korte, C., Friedberg, R.D., Wilgenbusch, T., Paternostro, J.K., Brown, K. … Leykin, Y. (2021). Intolerance of uncertainty and health-related anxiety in youth amid the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding and weathering the continuing storm. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 29, 645–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-021-09816-x

Lacatena, M., & Sommantico, M. (2022). Old Age, Time, and the Space of the Home: A Qualitative Research Study During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3400

Lachman, M.E. (2006). Perceived control over aging-related declines: Adaptive beliefs and behaviors. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(6), 282-286. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2006.00453.x

Lanciano, T., Graziano, G., Curci, A., Costadura, S., & Monaco, A. (2020). Risk perceptions and psychological effects during the Italian COVID-19 emergency. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 580053.


Langmeyer, A., Guglhör-Rudan, A., Naab, T., Urlen, M., & Winklhofer, U. (2020). Kindsein in Zeiten von Corona. Ergebnisbericht zur Situation von Kindern während des Lockdowns im Frühjahr [Being a child in times of Corona. Outcome report on the situation of children during the spring lockdown.]. Deutsches Jugendinstitut.

Lardone, A., Sorrentino, P., Giancamilli, F., Palombi, T., Simper, T., Mandolesi, L. … Galli, F. (2020). Psychosocial variables and quality of life during the COVID-19 lockdown: a correlational study on a convenience sample of young Italians. PeerJ, 8, e10611. https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/7bzp5.

Lasch, C. (1981). The Freudian left and cultural revolution. New Left Review, 129, 23-34.

Lee, C., Cadigan, C., & Rhew, I. (2020). Increases in Loneliness Among Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Association With Increases in Mental Health Problems. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(5), 714-717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.08.009

Lei, L., Huang, X., Zhang, S., Yang, J., Yang, L., & Xu, M. (2020). Comparison of prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression among people affected by versus people unaffected by quarantine during the COVID-19 epidemic in Southwestern China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e924609-1. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.924609

Li, J.B., Yang, A., Dou, K., Wang, L.X., Zhang, M.C., & Lin, X.Q. (2020). Chinese public’s knowledge, perceived severity, and perceived controllability of COVID-19 and their associations with emotional and behavioural reactions, social participation, and precautionary behaviour: A national survey. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09695-1

Lin, T., Harris, E.A., Heemskerk, A., Van Bavel, J.J., & Ebner, N.C. (2021). A multi-national test on self-reported compliance with COVID-19 public health measures: The role of individual age and gender demographics and countries’ developmental status. Social Science & Medicine, 286, 114335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114335

Lips, A. (2021). The situation of young people at home during COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood Vulnerability Journal, 3(1), 61-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41255-021-00014-3

Lwin, M.O., Lu, J., Sheldenkar, A., Schulz, P.J., Shin, W., Gupta, R., & Yang, Y. (2020). Global sentiments surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter: analysis of Twitter trends. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 6(2), e19447. https://doi.org/10.2196/19447

Maltese, S. (2021). Non è una pandemia per giovani. Le adolescenze in stand-by e la metafora che non c’è. Journal of Health Care Education in Practice, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.14658/pupj-jhcep-2021-1-2

Mansfield, R., Santos, J., Deighton, J., Hayes, D., Velikonja, T., Boehnke, J.R., & Patalay, P. (2022). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent mental health: A natural experiment. Royal Society Open Science, 9, 211114. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.211114

McDonald, R., & Ho, M. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64–82. https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989X.7.1.64

McDonald, R.P. (1999). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

McKinlay, A.R., May, T., Dawes, J., Fancourt, D., & Burton, A. (2021). “You’re just there, alone in your room with your thoughts” A qualitative study about the impact of lockdown among young people during the COVID-19 pandemic. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.11.21254776

Miceli, S., Caci, B., Roccella, M., Vetri, L., Quatrosi, G., & Cardaci, M. (2021). Do Mental Health and Vitality Mediate the Relationship between Perceived Control over Time and Fear of COVID-19? A Survey in an Italian Sample. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(16), 3516. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163516

Mucci, F., Mucci, N., & Diolaiuti, F. (2020). Lockdown and isolation: psychological aspects of COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 17(2), 63. https://doi.org/10.36131/CN20200205

O’Donnell, M.L., & Greene, T. (2021). Understanding the mental health impacts of COVID-19 through a trauma lens. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 1982502. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2021.1982502

Osorio Guzmán, M., Regnoli, G.M., Postiglione, J., Fenizia, E., De Rosa, B., & Prado Romero, C. (2022). Perspectiva del tiempo futuro en jóvenes adultos durante la pandemia COVID-19. Resultados preliminares comparación Italia-México. Enseñanza e Investigación en Psicología, 4(3), 664-678.

Overall, J.E., & Klett, C.J. (1972). Applied multivariate analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Parola, A., Rossi, A., Tessitore, F., Troisi, G., & Mannarini, S. (2020). Mental health through the COVID-19 quarantine: a growth curve analysis on Italian young adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2466. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.567484

Parrello, S. (2018). Scene dal Futuro. Adolescenza, educazione e distopia. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Peirone, L. (2021). Un nemico venuto dal nulla: riflessioni psicopatologiche e psicoanalitiche sull’Invisibile-Intangibile. Nuovo Coronavirus e Resilienza [An enemy from nowhere: Psychopathological and psychoanalytic reflections on the Invisible-Intangible. Novel Coronavirus and Resilience]. Torino: Anthropos.

Pieh, C., Budimir, S., & Probst, T. (2020). The effect of age, gender, income, work, and physical activity on mental health during coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown in Austria. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 136, 110186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110186

Procaccia, R., Segre, G., & Manzoni, G. M. (2022). Psychological effects of COVID-19 in general Italian population in function of age and gender. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3369

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213

Raihan, M.M.H. (2021). Mental health consequences of COVID-19 pandemic on adult population: A systematic review. Mental Health Review Journal, 26(1), 42-54. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHRJ-07-2020-0044

Ranta, M., Silinskas, G., & Wilska, T. A. (2020). Young adults’ personal concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Finland: an issue for social concern. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 40(9-10), 1201-1219. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJSSP-07-2020-0267

Rask, C. U., Gehrt, T. B., Rimvall, M. K., & Frostholm, L. (2020). Health anxiety: Conceptualization and future directions. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie, 228, 141–144. https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000407

Regnoli, G.M., De Rosa, B., & Palombo, P. (2022). “Voice to the youth”: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of how Italian young adults experienced the pandemic. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3397

Rollè, L., Trombetta, T., Calabrese, C., Vismara, L., & Sechi, C. (2022). Adult attachment, loneliness, COVID-19 risk perception and perceived stress during COVID-19 pandemic. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3286

Rossi, R., Socci, V., Talevi, D., Mensi, S., Niolu, C., Pacitti, F. … Di Lorenzo, G. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures impact on mental health among the general population in Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 790. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00790

Rubin, G.J., & Wessely, S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ, 368. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m313

Santangelo, O.E., Provenzano, S., & Firenze, A. (2018). Anxiety, depression and risk consumption of alcohol in a sample of university students. Rivista di Psichiatria, 53(2), 88-94. https://doi.org/10.1708/2891.29157

Santos, J.R.A. (1999). Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. Journal of Extension, 37(2), 1-5.

Saulle, R., Minozzi, S., Amato, L., & Davoli, M. (2021). Impatto del distanziamento sociale per covid-19 sulla salute fisica dei giovani: una revisione sistematica della letteratura [Impact of social distancing by covid-19 on young people's physical health: A systematic literature review]. Recenti Progressi in Medicina, 112(5), 347-359. https://doi.org/10.1701/3608.35872

Savarese, G., Curcio, L., D’Elia, D., Fasano, O., & Pecoraro, N. (2020). Online University counselling services and psychological problems among Italian students in lockdown due to Covid-19. Healthcare, 8(4) 440. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040440

Settineri, S., & Merlo, E. M. (2020). Fear of contamination. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(1).


Shanahan, L., Steinhoff, A., Bechtiger, L., Murray, A.L., Nivette, A., Hepp, U. … Eisner, M. (2020). Emotional distress in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence of risk and resilience from a longitudinal cohort study. Psychological Medicine, 52(5). https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329172000241X

Silesh, M., Demisse, T.L., Taye, B.T., Desta, K., Kitaw, T.M., Mekuria, A.D., … Fenta, B. (2021). Compliance with COVID-19 Preventive Measures and Associated Factors Among Women Attending Antenatal Care at Public Health Facilities of Debre Berhan Town, Ethiopia. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 14, 4561. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S330932

Smith, J.A. (1995). Semi-structured interviewing and qualitative analysis. In J.A. Smith, R. Harrâe & L.V. Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 9–26). London: Sage. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446221792.n2

Spector, P.E. (1992). Summated Rating Scale Construction: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Sweeny, K. (2018). On the experience of awaiting uncertain news. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(4), 281-285. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721417754197

Szabó, M., & Lovibond, P. F. (2002). The cognitive content of naturally occurring worry episodes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26(2), 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014565602111

Theberath, M., Bauer, D., Chen, W., Salinas, M., Mohabbat, A.B., Yang, J., … Wahner-Roedler, D.L. (2022). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of children and adolescents: A systematic review of survey studies. SAGE Open Medicine, 30(10), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/20503121221086712

Torija, C.S.T., Pozo, M.D.R.H., Bravo, Y., Hurtado, A.C., & Romero, M. (2016). Prevalence of anxiety symptoms in a sample of college students at a faculty of health sciences in Mexico. Tesis Psicológica, 11(2), 12-22.

Varma, P., Junge, M., Meaklim, H., & Jackson, M.L. (2021). Younger people are more vulnerable to stress, anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic: A global cross-sectional survey. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 109, 110236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110236

Veronese, G., Cavazzoni, F., Fiore, F., & Rachel, P. (2021). Fear of COVID-19 mediates the relation between mental distress and at-risk health behaviours in Italian adults. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3145

Viscuso, D.G.I., & Mangiapane, D.E. (2020). Pandemic Covid-19: Psychodynamic analysis of a global trauma. Clinical considerations prepost Lock down. Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 3(6).


Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J… Peng, Z. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 323(11), 1061-1069. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1585

Wise, T., Zbozinek, T., Michelini, G., Hagan, C.C., & Mobbs, D. (2020). Changes in risk perception and protective behavior during the first week of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. PsyArXiv Preprints. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dz428

Xie, L., Zhou, S., & Zhang, L. (2021). Associations between objective and subjective housing status with individual mental health in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030930

Yildirım, M., Geçer, E., & Akgül, Ö. (2021). The impacts of vulnerability, perceived risk, and fear on preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 26(1), 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1776891

Zhang, N., Liu, X., Jin, T., Zhao, P., Miao, D., Lei, H. … Li, Y. (2021). Weakening personal protective behavior by Chinese university students after COVID-19 vaccination. Building and Environment, 206, 108367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108367

Zheng, L., Miao, M., & Gan, Y. (2020). Perceived control buffers the effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on general health and life satisfaction: The mediating role of psychological distance. Applied Psychology: Health and WellBeing, 12(4), 1095-1114. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12232

DOI: https://doi.org/10.13129/2282-1619/mjcp-3659


  • There are currently no refbacks.