Assessing transplant representation: psychometric characteristics of the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire in an Italian sample of transplant recipients

Benedetta Muzii, Emmanuelle Corruble, Francesco Palumbo, Giorgia Margherita


Background: Organ transplantation may elicit several emotional responses, where the lack of psychological integration of the allograft can lead to up to out-to-out manifestations of psychopathological symptoms. As there are only a few studies which examined the impact of a successful psychological integration, it is mandatory to have a specific tool available. The aim of this study is to assess the factorial structure of the Italian translation of the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire (TOQ) and verify the association with its dimensions and psychopathology.

Methods: The TOQ was translated from English into Italian using back-translation procedure, then it has been included in a survey with the Brief Symptoms Inventory in order to assess predictive validity with psychopathological symptoms. 117 Italian solid organ transplant recipients were enrolled via web and completed the survey.

Results: Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the three-factor model had sufficient fit to the data obtained from the Italian sample, with the exclusion of five items for cultural and transplant-specific reasons. Predictive validity was partially confirmed, implying that the TOQ is significantly associated with mental health outcome measures.

Conclusion: The Italian version of the TOQ represents a valid tool to explore the process of psychological integration of the transplanted organ and could improve the understanding about the role of psychological factors in post-transplant physiological recovery and duration of the graft. Clinicians and researchers in healthcare settings may take advantage of the TOQ to assess the changes experienced over time by transplant recipients and the resulting psychological implications on their global well-being.


Solid organ transplant; Psychopathology; Clinical psychology; Confirmatory factor analysis.

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